Side-by-side Chinese-English


张睿骁1 樊晓一1,2 姜元俊3 李天话1

(1.西南科技大学土木工程与建筑学院, 四川绵阳 621010)
(2.工程材料与结构冲击振动四川省重点实验室, 四川绵阳 621010)
(3.中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所, 四川成都 610041)


【关键词】 碎屑流;拦挡结构;冲击;堆积特性;


【基金资助】 国家自然科学基金项目(41877524); 工程材料与结构冲击振动四川省重点实验室开发基金(18kfjk10); 西南科技大学研究生创新基金资助(19ycx0080);

Influence of different retaining structures on landslide–debris flow impact and accumulation characteristics

ZHANG Ruixiao1 FAN Xiaoyi1,2 JIANG Yuanjun3 LI Tianhua1

(1.School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China 621010)
(2.Shock and Vibration of Engineering Materials and Structures Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China 621010)
(3.Institute of Mountain Hazard and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China 610041)

【Abstract】Landslide–debris flow is a common form of motion for high-level landslides. It has the characteristics of large scale, long runout distance, and high flow velocity. The deposit area of landslides and the intensity of hazard could be reduced by the retaining structure. In this study, we used three-dimensional discrete element simulation software to study the accumulation and kinematic characteristics of debris flow with three different retaining structures. The results indicate that the movement direction of the debris flow particles is deflected, and the velocity distribution of the sliding body changes significantly, in which the maximum speed of the sliding body changes from the slope to the trailing edge. As the length of the retaining structure rises, the normal force increases significantly, while the tangential force grows slightly. The area of the stacking area and the maximum horizontal moving distance continue to decrease, and the area of the safe area continues to increase. Also, this paper introduced the dimensionless number (Nk) to analyze the effect of particle sorting effect on the kinematic and accumulation characteristics of different particles. For the same intercept width, the Nk value of K3 is the smallest, while the Nk value of K1 is the largest. The Nk values of three particles gradually increase with the rise of the barrier structure width. After the resistive structure is added, the percentage of debris flow volume exhibits the distribution of an exponential function, and it decreases gradually with the increase in the moving distance. When there is no resistive structure, the percentage of the particle bulk volume exhibits the distribution of Extreme function. It means that the volume distribution reaches the peak near the middle position, and both sides show a decreasing trend.

【Keywords】 debris flow; resistive structure; impact; accumulation characteristics;


【Funds】 National Natural Science Foundation of China (41877524); Opening Fund of Shock and Vibration of Engineering Materials and Structures key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, China (18kfjk10); Postgraduate Innovation Fund Project by Southwest University of Science and Technology (19ycx0080);

Download this article

    [1] DUAN Xiaodong, FAN Xiaoyi, JIANG Yuanjun, et al. Study on soil arch effect of dry debris flow for impact barricade wall [J]. Journal of Natural Disasters, 2015, 24 (5): 92–102 (in Chinese).

    [2] SUN Xinpo, HE Siming, XIAO Jun, et al. Simulation of rockfall debris–baffle plate interaction based on SPH method [J]. Journal of Natural Disasters, 2016, 25 (3): 96–103 (in Chinese).

    [3] Zhou G G D, Ng C W W. Numerical investigation of reverse segregation in debris flows by DEM [J]. Granular Matter, 2010, 12 (5): 507–516.

    [4] LU Pengyuan, YANG Xingguo, SHAO Shuai, et al. Particle discrete element simulation on punching–shear and scraping effect of landslide–debris flow [J]. Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, 2018, 49 (7): 19–27 (in Chinese).

    [5] Jiang Y J, Towhata I. Experimental study of dry granular flow and impact behavior against a rigid retaining wall [J]. Rock Mechanics & Rock Engineering, 2013, 46 (4): 713–729.

    [6] Jiang Y J, Zhao Y. Experimental investigation of dry granular flow impact via both normal and tangential force measurements [J]. Geotechnique Letters, 2015, 5 (January–March): 33–38.

    [7] Jiang Y J, Zhao Y, Towhata I, et al. Influence of particle characteristics on impact event of dry granular flow [J]. Powder Technology, 2015, 270: 53–67.

    [8] SUN Xinpo, HE Siming, FAN Xiaoyi, et al. The impact dynamic evolution process and parameter sensitivity study on collapse and buttress [J]. Journal of Chengdu University of Technology (Science & Technology Edition), 2017, 44 (2): 232–238 (in Chinese).

    [9] SUN Xinpo, HE Siming, LIU Enlong, et al. Analysis of rockfall debris–obstacle interaction with SPH method [J]. Mountain Research, 2016, 34 (3): 331–336 (in Chinese).

    [10] SUN Xinpo, HE Siming, FAN Xiaoyi, et al. The effect of particle size on the impact of rockfall debris on obstacles [J]. Journal of Zhejiang University of Technology, 2016, 44 (2): 221–225 + 236 (in Chinese).

    [11] BI Yuzhang, HE Siming, LI Xinpo, et al. Kinetic mechanism of mixed particles under constraint conditions [J]. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 2016, 38 (3): 529–536 (in Chinese).

    [12] PENG Shuangqi, XU Qiang, ZHENG Guang, et al. Relationship between particle size distribution and movement characteristics of rock avalanche deposits: a case study of the Pusa village rock avalanche in Nayong of Guizhou [J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2018, 45 (4): 129–136 (in Chinese).

    [13] LEI Xianshun, ZHU Dayong, LIU Cheng, et al. Model test study of the effect of slope angle and chute width on landslide [J]. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2017, 38 (5): 1281–1288 (in Chinese).

    [14] LEI Xianshun, SHEN Yinbin, ZHU Dayong, et al. Model Studies of debris flow [J]. Journal of Hefei University of Technology (Natural Science), 2016, 39 (10): 1367–1371+1396 (in Chinese).

    [15] WANG Juncai, LU Kunlin, ZHU Dayong. Indoor modeling test for regularity of deposit position of landslide–debris avalanches [J]. Journal of Engineering Geology, 2017, 25 (6): 1509–1517 (in Chinese).

    [16] SUN Xinpo, HE Siming, GAO Chengfeng, et al. Discrete element numerical analysis of Niujuangou landslide [J]. Journal of Lanzhou University (Natural Sciences), 2017, 53 (1): 48–53 (in Chinese).

    [17] Zhou G G D, Ng C W W. Numerical investigation of reverse segregation in debris flows by DEM [J]. Granular Matter, 2010, 12 (5): 507–516.

    [18] Ng C W W, Song D, Choi C E, et al. Impact mechanisms of granular and viscous flows on rigid and flexible. [J]. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 2017, 54 (2).

    [19] BI Yuzhang, HE Siming, FU Yuesheng, et al. Simulation of the dynamic response of new type rock avalanche impact defense structure and the mechanism of energy dissipation base on DEM [J]. Mountain Research, 2015, 33 (5): 560–570 (in Chinese).

    [20] BI Yuzhang, HE Siming, WANG Dongpo, et al. Discrete-element investigation of rock avalanches impact on the bridge pier [J]. The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control, 2017, 28 (4): 16–21 (in Chinese).

    [21] Albaba A, Lambert S, Nicot F, et al. Relation between microstructure and loading applied by a granular flow to a rigid wall using DEM modeling [J]. Granular Matter, 2015, 17 (5): 603–616.

    [22] Li Xinpo, He Siming, Luo Yu, Wu Yong, Discrete element modeling of debris avalanche impact on retaining walls [J]. Journal of Mountain Science, 2010: 276–281.

    [23] Diana Salciarini, Claudio Tamagnini, Pietro Conversini. Discrete element modeling of debris-avalanche impact on earthfill barriers [J]. Physics & Chemistry of the Earth, 2010, 35 (3–5): 172–181.

    [24] Bi Y, He S, Li X, et al. Effects of segregation in binary granular mixture avalanches down inclined chutes impinging on defending structures [J]. Environmental Earth Sciences, 2016, 75 (3): 263.

    [25] FAN Yunyun, WANG Sijing, WANG Enzhi. Influence of obstacles on granular flows [J]. Journal of Civil, Architectural & Environmental Engineering, 2010, 32 (5): 35–40 (in Chinese).

    [26] FAN Xiaoyi, LENG Xiaoyu, DUAN Xiaodong. Influence of topographical factors on movement distances of toe-type and turning-type landslides triggered by earthquake [J]. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2015, 36 (5): 1380–1388 (in Chinese).

    [27] YANG Hailong. Movement Mechanism of Turning-Type Landslide Debris Flow in Valley Topography [D]. Mianyang: Southwest University of Science and Technology, 2018 (in Chinese).

    [28] YANG Hailong, FAN Xiaoyi, ZHAO Yunhui, et al. Model tests on influence of deflection angle on the movement of landslide–debris avalanches [J]. Mountain Research, 2017, 35 (3): 316–322 (in Chinese).

    [29] Barrios G K P, Carvalho R M D, Kwade A, et al. Contact parameter estimation for DEM simulation of iron ore pellet handling [J]. Powder Technology, 2013, 248 (2): 84–93.

    [30] LI Xianglong, TANG Huiming, XIONG Chengren, et al. Influence of substrate ploughing and erosion effect on process of rock avalanche [J]. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2012, 33 (5): 001527–1541 (in Chinese).

    [31] Fan R L, Zhang L M, Wang H J, et al. Evolution of debris flow activities in Gaojiagou Ravine during 2008–2016 after the Wenchuan earthquake [J]. Engineering Geology, 2018, 235: 1–10.

    [32] Cui Y, Choi C E, Liu L H D, et al. Effects of particle size of mono-disperse granular flows impacting a rigid barrier [J]. Natural Hazards, 2018, 91 (3): 1179–1201.

    [33] Hu Xu, Cristina G, Zhixiang Yu, et al. An energy allocation based design approach for flexible rockfall protection barriers [J]. Engineering Structures, 2018, 173: 831–852.

    [34] LIU Yongjiang, HU Houtian, ZHAO Xiaoyan, et al. Experimental study on impact effect of high-speed landslide [J]. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2004, 25 (2): 255–260 (in Chinese).

This Article


CN: 23-1324/X

Vol 28, No. 04, Pages 52-61

August 2019


Article Outline


  • 1 3D discrete element model
  • 2 Analysis of debris flow impact
  • 3 Analysis of accumulation bodies
  • 4 Conclusions
  • References