New and effective solutions to the problem of grain security: enhancing the development of the forage grass industry
【Abstract】During 2003–2014, China’s grain production had achieved the eleventh increase in a row. Meanwhile, China’s agriculture also faces the shortage of water and land resources, outstanding problems of quality and security of products, heavy pressure on the ecology, low production efficiency and other outstanding restraints. The traditional ideas must be reconsidered from a fresh and wide perspective for solving the problem of grain security. This paper suggests that grain security should be repositioned from the perspective of the entire food system. Currently, the problem of grain security in China is forage security in essence, namely, the sufficient supply, and quality and security of animal products. China’s agricultural structure has been adjusted basically every 20 years, namely, the monotonous structure of grain as the key link from the middle 1950s to the implementation of the reform and opening-up policy, the dual structure of grain crops + cash crops from 1978 to 1992, and the triple structure of grain crops, cash crops and forage crops from 1992 to the present. Now, China’s agricultural structure has entered another new period for adjustment. In the current planting structure of grain crops + cash crops + forage crops, the planting area of forage crops actually accounts for over 20%, but the planting area of forage grass keeps at around 1%, so the development of forage grass industry has long remained sluggish. The forage grass industry must be introduced to the agricultural production system to advance the quadruple planting structure of grain crops + cash crops + forage crops + forage grass, so as to increase grain production directly or indirectly, reduce consumption of grain directly or indirectly, and finally reach the goal of grain security by multiple solutions.
【Keywords】 the forage grass industry; grain security; food safety; the planting structure;
. (1) Source: the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (eds.). China Statistical Yearbook (1991–2015). Beijing: China Statistics Press. [^Back]
. (2) Source: the research report on strategies for sustainable development of animal husbandry, Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China, 2012. [^Back]
. (1) Generally, the traditional planting structure combining grain crops and cash crops is called as the dual planting structure; the traditional planting structure combining grain crops, cash crops and forage crops is called as the triple planting structure. [^Back]
. (1) It is calculated according to data from China Statistic Yearbook (2013). [^Back]
. (1) In 2011, the number of cows for sale in China was 14.4 million. According to estimation of technological experts, lactating cows in a mature flock accounted for about 55%. Lactating cows accounted for a small percentage, namely, about 7.5 million, of the total milk cows China, since many flocks of cows were at the growth stage. The estimation was made in 2011. [^Back]
. (1) Source: a survey by the author in Kashgar Prefecture and Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region at the end of July and the middle September, 2012. [^Back]
. (1) According to the estimation, one reproductive sow consumes 2.2–3.5 kg of daily feed during different periods of a year, so we hereby suppose the average daily consumption of feed as 2.8 kg for each reproductive sow. [^Back]
. (2) It is estimated according to the parameters obtained from the survey by the author in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hebei Province, Shandong Province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. [^Back]
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