Transformation of agricultural production mode promoted by Internet Plus: an exploration based on the perspective of Marxist political economics
【Abstract】Classic Marxist writers divided the agricultural production mode in history into three forms: the small-scale mode of agricultural production, the capitalist mode of agricultural production and the socialist mode of agricultural production. As it was not easy to realize socialized large-scale production in the agricultural production process, the small-scale mode of agricultural production did not develop into the capitalist mode of agricultural production that was predicted by classic writers. Based on the analysis framework of productivity—the production mode—production relations, we put forward in the paper that Internet Plus as a new form of productivity changed the way that laborers and means of production combined with each other in agricultural production, which not only helped to solve the problem of capital supervising labor in the agricultural enterprise operating model, but also improved the economies of scale in the agricultural household operating model. It might also compensate for the difficulty in achieving specialization and the vertical labor division in the agricultural production process through product innovation and the expanding of social division of labor. The developing direction of socialist agriculture was to surpass the small-scale mode of agricultural production technically, and to turn into a new production mode that was different from capitalist agriculture in terms of the production mode and land ownership at the same time.
【Keywords】 mode of production; Internet Plus agriculture; agricultural management mode; social division of labor;
. ① The complete statement of this paragraph was that public ownership of land gave it a natural basis of collective possession, and its historical environment (capitalist production coexists with it) gave it a ready-made material condition for cooperative labor organized in a large scale. Therefore, it might not pass Caudine Forks of the capitalist system, but absorbed all the positive results achieved by the capitalist system. It might use machines to gradually replace small land cultivation with joint farming, and the Russian land’s natural terrain was quite suitable for the use of machine. If guided to a normal status in advance of the current form, it could directly become the starting point for the tended economic system of modern society, and could get a new life without suicide (Marx, K. and Engels, F. The Complete Works of Marx and Engels (Vol. 19) (马克思恩格斯全集). Beijing: People’s Publishing House, 451 (1972)) [^Back]
. ① Marx, K. and Engels, F. The Complete Works of Marx and Engels (Volume 19) (马克思恩格斯全集). Beijing: People’s Publishing House, 451 (1972). [^Back]
. ① Marx, K. Capital (Volume 1) (资本论, 第1卷). Beijing: People’s Publishing House, 872 (2004). [^Back]
. ② Marx, K. Capital (Volume 3) (资本论, 第3卷). Beijing: People’s Publishing House, 694 (2004). [^Back]
. ① As a farmer famous for growing grain in Chongqing City, Liang Ziran once rent 10,600 mu of paddy field from 2632 farmers in Zhutuo Town to grow rice. But he faced the difficulty of high labor cost throughout the course. The designed intensive model failed to solve the problem, and he finally went bankrupt in 2012 after three years, with a loss of more than CNY 2 million. See China Business Times (中华工商时报), (2013–10–28). [^Back]
. ② Data source: Announcement from the Office of Ministry of Agriculture on Recommending 116 Cost Decreasing and Effect Increasing Application Modes on Agricultural Internet of Things, http://www.moa.gov.cn/zwllm/tzgg/tfw/201509/t20150914_4827089.htm, 2015. [^Back]
. ① Source: Farmers’ Daily (农民日报), (2015–12–8). [^Back]
. ② These principles mainly refer to the principles of cooperatives that originate from the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers in 1844, including the three basic principles, the democratic control of the organization, a limited interest on share capital and the return on member’s interests being in proportion to the member’s patronage. [^Back]
. ① Western economics did not recognize the difference between two forms of labor division. In Chapter 1 of The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith used the classic example of pin factory to illustrate that labor division was the reason for economic progress, but he also put forward the Smith theorem, that labor division was subject to the market scope in Chapter 3. Thus, he did not realize that what he had mentioned was two different forms of labor division, which caused a dilemma in his theoretical system. In Chapter 9, Section 4 of Principles of Economics, Marshall also confused enterprise internal working specialization with industrial internal specialized production. [^Back]
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