How are public service resources allocated in metropolitan rural-urban fringe zones? A case study of J town in Shanghai
【Abstract】Based on the case analysis of J town in Shanghai, this paper tries to build an institutional framework to analyze the factors influencing the allocation of public service resources in metropolitan rural-urban fringe zones. The research shows that, in the allocation of public service resources in metropolitan rural-urban fringe zones, the state mechanism and the social mechanism play major roles, while the market mechanism plays a beneficial complementary role. The allocation of public service resources in metropolitan rural-urban fringe zones is not only related to the state, market and social mechanisms, but also subjects to the relationships of the three mechanisms. This paper further finds that, because of limitations existing in the state mechanism and social mechanism in J town and the insufficient integration of the two mechanisms, a “double puddle” is thus formed in the allocation of public service resources, which means the allocation outcome of public service resources in J town is not only inferior to that in the downtown, but also inferior to that in the central area of the suburb. To promote a balanced allocation of public service resources in metropolitan rural-urban fringe zones, it is necessary to effectively realize the major role played by the state mechanism as well as the social mechanism and the beneficial complementary role played by the market mechanism, and then to achieve the integration of the two mechanisms.
【Keywords】 metropolis; rural-urban fringe zones; public service resources; allocation; mechanism;
. ① Data source: National Bureau of Statistics of China (ed.) China Statistical Yearbook 2014, China Statistics Press, (2014). [^Back]
. ② Hirschman (2001) put forward the “exit” and “appeal” concepts in the analysis of organizational performance decline and its recovery mechanism, and he thought that the managers of enterprise or public organization could discover the existence of the recession in the organization and take the appropriate measures for the rehabilitation through observing the consumers or public organization members’ “exit” or “called for” situation. Using this idea, the community’s demand for public service resources can generally be expressed by appeal or exit. The former includes “vote with hand” and “opinion expression,” and the latter includes “vote with feet.” The household registration system to a certain extent limits the applicability of “vote with feet” in China. Even if the theoretical applicability of “vote with feet” is recognized, as the cost of living in rural-urban fringe zones is less than that in the downtown, a large number of people will flow to the rural-urban fringe zones during a certain period of time. Thus, the “vote with feet” theory is limited in China. In view of this, this paper mainly analyzes the role of “appeal.” [^Back]
. ① The data come from interviews with J town’s government departments. [^Back]
. ② The specific needs of public service resources of J town’s residents will be seen below on the status quo analysis. [^Back]
. ③ See Standards for the Establishment of Public Service Facilities for Urban Residential Areas and Residential Districts (No. DGJ08-55-2006) released by Shanghai Construction and Traffic Committee, March 3, 2006. [^Back]
. ④ See Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau (ed.) Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2012, China Statistics Press, (2012). [^Back]
. ⑤ See Songjiang Statistical Yearbook 2013 released by Shanghai Songjiang Statistics Bureau, http://tjj.songjiang.gov.cn, July 26, 2013. [^Back]
. ① See Basic Standard of Setting Up Community Health Service Center in Shanghai released by Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau, http://wsj.sh.gov.cn, April 25, 2008. [^Back]
. ② See Notice on the Issuance of Guidelines for Setting Up and Staffing Standards for Urban Community Health Service Agency released by State Commission Office of Public Sectors Reform, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance, and Ministry of Civil Affairs, http://www.gov.cn, April 25, 2008. [^Back]
. ③ The data come from the author’s interview on the status quo of medical resource allocation in J town on July 9, 2013. [^Back]
. ① The data come from the author’s interview in P Community of J town on February 6, 2013. [^Back]
. ② For example, in the survey on J town, some government staff thought that some of the roads in J town were part of the village roads and town roads, and the road grade was low. Although the traffic was very crowded, limited by the planning level, it was difficult to upgrade the road. And if the government level of J town could be improved, the level of these roads could be improved accordingly. [^Back]
. ③ The data come from the author’s interview in J town’s Social Affairs Office on August 19, 2013. [^Back]
. ④ Data source: Songjiang Statistical Yearbook 2013 edited by Shanghai Songjiang Statistics Bureau, htip://tjj.songjiang.gov.cn, July 26, 2013. [^Back]
. ⑤ Data source: Songjiang Statistical Yearbook 2013 edited by Shanghai Songjiang Statistics Bureau, htip://tjj.songjiang.gov.cn, July 26, 2013. [^Back]
. ⑥ Data source: Data on Registered Population and Permanent Resident Population of Songjiang District at the End of 2012, http://www sjpop.gov.cn, June 18, 2013. [^Back]
. ⑦ Data source: Lu, L., Liu, Y. & Liu, H. Shanghai’s local fiscal revenue was CNY 374.371 billion in 2012 with the growth of 9.2%, http://biz.xinmin.cn, January 21, 2013. [^Back]
. ⑧ Data source: Qiu, Y. The resident population in Shanghai reached 23.8 million people, http://news.xinhuanet.com, February 19, 2013. [^Back]
. ① The data come from the author’s interview in J town’s traffic police departments from July 9 to July 13, 2013. [^Back]
. ② Data source: the program of “I Have Something to Say to the Leaders of Districts (Counties) in Shanghai,”Dongfang network. A reply of J town’s government on the “management construction of J town subway station.” http://newappl.eastday.com/news/quzhang_liuyan/LiuyanDetail.aspx?QuestionID=4779, July 21, 2011. [^Back]
. ③ Data source: “the program of “I Have Something to Say to the Leaders of Districts (Counties) in Shanghai,” Dongfang network. The follow-up comment of “The problem of illegal car is serious in J town, but there is no governance.” http://newappl.eastday.com/news/quzhan_liuyan/LiuyanDetail.aspx?QuestionID=136, June 10, 2009. [^Back]
. ① See Standards for the Establishment of Public Service Facilities for Urban Residential Areas and Residential Districts (No. DGJ08-55-2006) released by Shanghai Construction and Traffic Committee, March 3, 2006. [^Back]
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