Spatial distribution of unemployed population in Beijing and its influencing factors
(2.School of Architecture and Design at Beijing Jiaotong University)
【Abstract】Based on the data of the fifth (in 2000) and sixth (in 2010) Beijing population census, this paper analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of unemployment and the unemployment rate in Beijing measured at functional area, administrative district, and sub-district levels. According to the analyses, the number of the unemployed was growing slowly and the unemployment rate had dropped. The unemployed population has obvious social and economic features, such as more with native hukou (registered permanent residence), more males, more in the age group of 40–50, and more with low educational attainment. The unemployed is relatively concentrated spatially, especially in some specific sub-districts, and there is a relative decentralized trend, transferring from the central urban areas to the suburbs. In 2000, unemployment was highly concentrated in sub-districts in the urban areas where many stated-owned enterprises were reformed and workers were laid off. In 2010, unemployment was highly concentrated in sub-districts in the suburbs where resettlement housing and indemnificatory housing were intensively built and where manufacturing and mining industries declined. The change in the total amount of labor supply and demand, and the change in labor structure are major causes of unemployment, and the spatial mismatch between employment supply and employment demand and poor employment accessibility also exert some effects. Multi-regression model showed that characteristics of employment supply side, such as the proportion of population with junior college degree or above in the sub-districts; the features of the employers, such as the proportion of jobs in labor-intensive industries in the sub-districts; the distance from each sub-district to Tiananmen Square, and the ratio of migrant population and that of hukou-residence separated population affect the sub-district unemployment rate significantly in statistics.
【Keywords】 unemployment; spatial distribution; Beijing; spatial mismatch;
(Translated by SUN rui)
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