Spatial distribution of unemployed population in Beijing and its influencing factors

YI Chengdong1 ZHANG Chun2

(1.School of Management Science and Engineering at Central University of Finance and Economics)
(2.School of Architecture and Design at Beijing Jiaotong University)

【Abstract】Based on the data of the fifth (in 2000) and sixth (in 2010) Beijing population census, this paper analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of unemployment and the unemployment rate in Beijing measured at functional area, administrative district, and sub-district levels. According to the analyses, the number of the unemployed was growing slowly and the unemployment rate had dropped. The unemployed population has obvious social and economic features, such as more with native hukou (registered permanent residence), more males, more in the age group of 40–50, and more with low educational attainment. The unemployed is relatively concentrated spatially, especially in some specific sub-districts, and there is a relative decentralized trend, transferring from the central urban areas to the suburbs. In 2000, unemployment was highly concentrated in sub-districts in the urban areas where many stated-owned enterprises were reformed and workers were laid off. In 2010, unemployment was highly concentrated in sub-districts in the suburbs where resettlement housing and indemnificatory housing were intensively built and where manufacturing and mining industries declined. The change in the total amount of labor supply and demand, and the change in labor structure are major causes of unemployment, and the spatial mismatch between employment supply and employment demand and poor employment accessibility also exert some effects. Multi-regression model showed that characteristics of employment supply side, such as the proportion of population with junior college degree or above in the sub-districts; the features of the employers, such as the proportion of jobs in labor-intensive industries in the sub-districts; the distance from each sub-district to Tiananmen Square, and the ratio of migrant population and that of hukou-residence separated population affect the sub-district unemployment rate significantly in statistics.

【Keywords】 unemployment; spatial distribution; Beijing; spatial mismatch;


【Funds】 Special Funds for Basic Research Operating Expenses in Central Universities; Project of Scientific Research Innovation Team of Central University of Finance and Economics.

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(Translated by SUN rui)


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This Article


CN: 11-1043/C

Vol , No. 06, Pages 2-11+126

December 2015


Article Outline


  • 1 Social and economic features of the unemployed population in Beijing
  • 2 Spatial distribution of the unemployed population and its changes in Beijing
  • 3 Influencing factors of spatial distribution of the unemployed population in Beijing
  • 4 Conclusion, discussion and policy implication
  • Footnote