(2.北京市环境保护局, 北京 100044)
(3.北京生产力促进中心, 北京 100088)
(4.首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048)
【摘要】为准确估算混凝土搅拌站扬尘排放清单, 本研究综合美国环保局和南加州的搅拌站扬尘排放因子, 并在北京市典型搅拌站开展道路积尘负荷测试, 建立了北京市搅拌站各生产环节及综合扬尘排放因子.结合北京市搅拌站扬尘治理过程, 估算北京市1991~ 2014年搅拌站扬尘排放清单, 并预测2015~ 2020年排放清单.结果表明:北京市2015年搅拌站道路积尘负荷平均值为 (26.2±11.5) g/m2, 是南加州推荐值 (11.0g/m2) 的2.4倍;②1995年以前北京市搅拌站PM2.5综合排放因子为86g/m3混凝土, 第1季度混凝土产量月不均匀系数是其他季度的1/3, 2015年PM2.5综合排放因子相比1995年以前下降89.4%, 场区道路扬尘排放占比由10%增加至70%;③《北京市2013~ 2017年清洁空气行动计划》实施后, 2015年搅拌站扬尘PM2.5排放量下降至543.1t/a, 相比2013年减排48.3%, 其中清退无资质搅拌站对PM2.5减排的贡献为18.6%;④搅拌站扬尘排放主要集中在五环至六环 (52%) , 六环外排放量占总量的28%.未来北京市搅拌站扬尘减排工作应该着力于继续清退无资质搅拌和加强场区道路清扫保洁.
【基金资助】 国家质量基础的共性技术研究与应用重点专项 (2017YFF0211804) ; 国家科技支撑计划课题 (2014BAC23B02) ;
Emission factor and inventory for fugitive dust from concrete batching plants in Beijing
(2.Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau, Beijing, China 100044)
(3.Beijing Productivity Center, Beijing, China 100088)
(4.Capital Normal University, College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Beijing, China 100048)
【Abstract】In order to estimate the emission inventory for fugitive dust from concrete batching plants accurately, emission factors for fugitive dust from concrete batching plants in USEPA and SCAQMD were synthesized in this paper, and road silt loading test were carried out in typical concrete batching plants in Beijing, and the emission factors for fugitive dust of production segments and comprehensive process from concrete batching plants were established in Beijing. Combining with the fugitive dust managing process from concrete batching plants in Beijing, fugitive dust emission inventory from concrete batching plants in Beijing from 1991 to 2014 was estimated, and predicted for the year of 2015 to 2020. The results showed that the mean value of road silt loading of concrete batching plants was (26.2 ± 11.5) g/m2 in Beijing in 2015, which was 2.4 times as much as the value (11.0 g/m2) recommended by SCAQMD. The fugitive dust from concrete batching plants in Beijing before 1995 was uncontrolled, the comprehensive emission factor of PM2.5 was 86 g/m3 concrete, the uneven factor of monthly of production output of concrete batching plants in first quarter was 1/3 of other quarters. The comprehensive emission factor of PM2.5 in 2015 was declined 89.4% compared with 1995, and the proportion of road fugitive dust emission from plants in total emission was increased from 10% to 70%. After implementation of Beijing’s Clean Air Action Plan from 2013 to 2017, the PM2.5 emission from concrete batching plants fell to 543.1 t/a and decreased by 48.3% in 2015 compared with 2013. The contribution of elimination of unqualified concrete batching plants to PM2.5 emission reduction was 18.6%. The fugitive dust emission from concrete batching plants in Beijing was concentrated on the 5th ring road to 6th ring road (52%), and the emission amount of outside of 6th ring road accounted for 28% of total amount. In the future, eliminating unqualified concrete batching plants continuously and strengthening road sweep cleaning in plants should be the most important emission reduction efforts of concrete batching plants in Beijing.
【Keywords】 concrete batching plant; fugitive dust; emission factor; emission inventory;
【Funds】 Major Special Fund of Research and Application of Generic Technology of National Quality Infrastructure (2017YFF0211804); National Science and Technology Support Program (2014BAC23B02);
 Deligiannis V, Manesis S. Concrete batching and mixing plants: A new modeling and control approach based on global automata [J]. Automation in Construction, 2008, 17 (4): 368–376.
 Azarmi F, Kumar P, Mulheron M. The exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine particle emissions from concrete mixing, drilling and cutting activities [J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2014, 279: 268–279.
 Cazacliu B, Ventura A. Technical and environmental effects of concrete production: dry batch versus central mixed plant [J]. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2010, 18 (13): 1320–1327.
 Zhong LH, Li G, Zheng Q, et al. 散装水泥与环境保护 [J]. Urban Management Science & Technology, 2003, 5 (2): 73–74 (in Chinese).
 Huang YH, Li M, Qu S, et al. Characteristics of different components of PM2.5 and contribution to ambient light extinction coefficient [J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2015, 28 (8): 1193–1199 (in Chinese).
 Wang LH, Zeng FG, Xiang WL, et al. A model evaluation of the effect of implementing heavy air pollution emergency plan to PM2.5 reduction in Beijing [J]. China Environmental Science, 2015, 35 (8): 2546–2553 (in Chinese).
 Han LH, Zhang P, Zhang HL, et al. Pollution and source apportionment of atmospheric fine particles in Beijing [J]. China Environmental Science, 2016, 36 (11): 3203–3210 (in Chinese).
 Beijing Environmental Protection Administration. 2016年北京市环境状况公报 [R]. Beijing: Beijing Environmental Protection Administration, 2017 (in Chinese).
 Zhang DW. 北京市大气环境PM2.5污染现状及成因研究 [R]. Beijing: The Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Monitoring Center, 2014 (in Chinese).
 Xue YF, Zhou Z, Zhong LH, et al Characteristic of Particulate Emissions from Concrete Batching in Beijing [J]. Environmental Science, 2016, 37 (1): 88–93 (in Chinese).
 US EPA. Emission factor documentation for AP-42, Section 11.12 Concrete batching [R]. Washington DC: US EPA, 2006.
 DB11/513-2015绿色施工管理规程 [S] (in Chinese).
 Office of Leading Group of the State Council on the First National Census on Pollution Sources. 第一次全国污染源普查工业污染源产排污系数手册 (2007年版) [M]. Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, 2007 (in Chinese).
 South Coast Air Quality Management District. Particulate matter (PM) emission factors for processes/equipment at asphalt, cement, concrete, and aggregate product plants [R]. Diamond Bar, CA: SCAQMD, 2012.
 Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics. Beijing Statistical Yearbook 2016 [M]. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2016 (in Chinese).
 Ministry of Construction of China. 建建93号关于加快预拌混凝土发展的若干意见 [R]. Beiijng: 1996 (in Chinese).
 US EPA. Emission factor documentation for AP-42, Appendix C. 1 Procedures for sampling surface/bulk dust loading [R]. Washington DC: US EPA, 1995.
 US EPA. Emission factor documentation for AP-42, Procedures for laboratory analysis of surface/bulk dust [R]. Washington DC: US EPA, 1995.
 Huang YH, Qu S, Song GW, et al. Comparison of Screening Methods of Size Distribution of Fugitive Dust Source [J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2013, 26 (5): 522–526 (in Chinese).
 US EPA. Emission factor documentation for AP-42, Section 13.2.1: Paved roads [R]. Washington DC: US EPA, 2011.
 US EPA. Emission factor documentation for AP-42, Section 11.12 Concrete batching [R]. Washington DC: US EPA, 1995.
 Cowherd C, Donaldson J, Hegarty R. Background document for revisions to fine fraction ratios used for AP-42 fugitive dust emission factors [R]. Kansas City, MO: Midwest Research Institute, 2006.
 US EPA. Emission factor documentation for AP-42, Section 13.2.5 Industrial wind erosion [R]. Washington DC: US EPA, 2006.
 National Technology Standards Division, Bureau of Environmental Protection. 工业污染物产生和排放系数手册 [M]. Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, 1996: 172–182 (in Chinese).
 Wei Guo, John Pehrson. Case study to determine the silt content and silt loading of unpaved and paved roads at concrete material plants [J]. Extended Abstract, 2012-A-540-AWMA.
 Fan SB, Zhang DX, Tian LT, et al. Emission Inventory and Spatial Distribution of Road Fugitive Dust PM2.5 in Beijing [J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2016, 29 (1): 21–22 (in Chinese).
 Beijing Municipal Commission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. DB11/642-2009预拌混凝土生产管理规程 [S]. Beiijng: China standards Press, 2009 (in Chinese).
 Beijing Municipal People’s Government. 京政办发 9号北京市2013–2017年清洁空气行动计划重点任务分解2014年工作措施 [R]. Beiijng: 2014 (in Chinese).
 Beijing Municipal Commission of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. DB11/642-2014预拌混凝土绿色生产管理规程 [S]. Beiijng: China standards Press, 2014 (in Chinese).
 Zhao Y, Nielsen CP, Lei Y, et al. Quantifying the uncertainties of a bottom-up emission inventory of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants in China [J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physical, 2011, 11 (5): 2295–2308.
 Wei W, Wang SX, Hao JM. Uncertainty Analysis of Emission Inventory for Volatile Organic Compounds from Anthropogenic Sources in China [J]. Environmental Science, 2011, 32 (2): 305–312 (in Chinese).