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明治维新:元制度与派生制度的非均衡演进及其对日本工业化的影响

莽景石1

(1.南开大学日本研究院, 天津 300071)

【摘要】到2018年日本明治维新已经整整过去了150周年。基于一个元制度与派生制度的相对关系及其演进的分析框架, 可探讨明治维新对日本战前工业化的影响。作为一种大规模制度变迁, 明治维新与英国革命、美国革命不同, 元制度与派生制度是非均衡演进的, 即宪政元制度缺位条件下的替代制度与移植制度的非均衡演进。在明治维新的过程中, 日本没有选择宪政民主制度, 而是选择了天皇专制的威权主义制度, 同时大力移植源自于西方先发展国家的高效率现代经济制度。这样, 元制度与派生制度的非均衡演进, 在明治维新开始后的日本就转化为政治制度与经济制度的非均衡演进。明治维新表现出来的这种制度变迁模式, 就其短期效应而言, 由于国家具有更为强大的资源动员能力, 有力地促进了日本战前工业化;但是就其长期效应而言, 由于对外发动侵略战争, 最终使日本战前工业化归于失败。

【关键词】 明治维新;元制度;派生制度;制度变迁;工业化;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 南开大学亚洲研究中心人文社会科学基础性研究项目“日本的‘供给侧革命’与产业政策研究” (AS1802) ;

Meiji Restoration: the unbalanced evolution of proto-systems and derivative systems and its impact on Japan’s Industrialization

MANG Jingshi1

(1.Japan Institute of Nankai University, Tianjin, China 300071)

【Abstract】By 2018, Japan’s Meiji Restoration had reached its 150 anniversary. Based on the relative relationship between the proto-system and the derivative systems and the evolutionary analysis framework, this paper explores the impact of the Meiji Restoration on Japan’s pre-war industrialization. As a large-scale systematic change, the Meiji Restoration is different from the British Revolution and the American Revolution. In the process of the Meiji Restoration, the evolution of the proto-system and the derivative systems was unbalanced. In other words, the evolution of the alternative system and the transplanted systems without a proto constitutional government was unbalanced. Japan did not choose the constitutional democracy system in the restoration course, but the authoritarian system of the Emperor’s autocracy, and at the same time vigorously transplanted the high-efficiency modern economic systems deriving from the Western developed countries. Thus, the unbalanced evolution of the proto-system and the derivative systems was manifested in the unbalanced evolution of the political system and the economic systems since the Japanese Meiji Restoration began. The Meiji Restoration demonstrated the change of systematic model in Japan. From the perspective of the short-term effects, Japan’s pre-war industrialization had been greatly promoted because of its more powerful resource mobilization ability. However, from the perspective of the long-term effects, Japan started an aggressive war in the circumstance of systematic model change and the war ultimately led to the failure of Japan’s pre-war industrialization.

【Keywords】 Meiji Restoration; proto-system; derivative system; systematic change; industrialization;

【DOI】

【Funds】 Basic Research Project in Humanities and Social Sciences of the Asia Research Center in Nankai University (AS1802);

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This Article

ISSN:1000-355X

CN: 22-1065/F

Vol 37, No. 06, Pages 1-8

November 2018

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • Introduction
  • 1 Proto-systems, derivative systems and their relationships
  • 2 The UK and the US: from the Glorious Revolution to the Constitutional Development in the Extended Polities of the British Empire
  • 3 Japan: the formation of a “central state under the aegis of the traditional sovereign”
  • 4 Absence of a constitutional proto-system, system transplantation and Japan’s pre-war industrialization
  • Conclusion
  • References