【摘要】近年来, 日本制造业呈现一些新特征, 主要表现为3个方面:一是企业盈利能力大幅提升;二是“全球化经营”不断深化;三是企业转型加速, 特别是“制造业服务化”新趋势日益明显。此外, 日本制造业也面临着转型之痛, 2017年一系列造假丑闻就是其重要体现。总之, 日本制造业虽然遭受转型之痛但并未陷入竞争力大幅衰退的境地, 部分企业的创新与转型已经取得了重要进展。
【基金资助】 国家社会科学基金一般项目“出口解禁对日本军工产业影响研究” (16BGJ048) ;
New features of Japanese manufacturing industry and the difficulties with mode transformation
【Abstract】In recent years, there have been some new features in Japanese manufacturing industry, which have mainly been manifested in three aspects. Firstly, the corporate profitability has been greatly improved. Secondly, many enterprises continue to deepen the global operation. Thirdly, the new and obvious trend of service-oriented manufacturing especially reflects the acceleration of enterprise transformation. However, Japanese manufacturing industry is also facing difficulties with transformation, and a series of fraud scandals in 2017 exactly reflect that. In short, Japanese manufacturing industry has not fallen into a deep recession in spite of the difficulties. In contrast, some enterprises have made significant progress in innovation and transformation.
【Keywords】 Japanese manufacturing industry; corporate profitability; global operation; service-oriented manufacturing; fraud scandal;
【Funds】 General Project of National Social Science Fund of China (16BGJ048);
. ① The fiscal year of Japanese enterprises generally begins on April 1 of the current year and ends on March 31 of the following year. However, in recent years, some enterprises have begun to adopt the fiscal year of January 1—December 31. [^Back]
. ① In Japan, a backbone enterprise refers to an enterprise whose size is between a large enterprise and a SEM. It has independent technologies and products, and has a high market share in related fields. The term has been in use since the 1960s. In addition, Japanese SMEs refer to enterprises with a capital of less than JPY 300 million and fewer than 300 employees (standards are lower for wholesale, retail and service industries). [^Back]
. ① The first balance of payments is one of the important items in Japan’s external current balance of payments. It refers to the interest and dividends, and other payments arising from Japan’s external financial claim and debt, including the income from foreign direct investment, securities investment and other investment. [^Back]
. ② LSI means large-scale integrated circuits of semiconductors; MCU refers to micro-control units in the field of semiconductor, NEC stands for Nippon Electric Company, and DRAM refers to dynamic memory of semiconductor [^Back]
. ① According to scholars represented by Professor Fujimoto Takahiro of the University of Tokyo, Japanese enterprises have the internal coordination advantage for modular production, that is, the operational advantages of mutual coordination based on Toyota Production System production mode and the unique training system of Japanese enterprises. [^Back]
. ① Komatsu’s KOMTRAX is a remote control system based on on-board sensors and satellite technology. [^Back]
. ② Komatsu’s Autonomous Haulage System is an autonomous driving system for haulers. It was tested in 2005 and put into commercial use in 2008. So far more than 100 vehicles have been included in the system and introduced into unmanned aerial vehicle equipment. [^Back]
. ① UACJ, that is, United Aluminum Company of Japan was established in 2013 by the merger of Furukawa-Sky Aluminum and Sumitomo Light Metal Industries. Its production capacity of aluminum rolling products exceeds 1 million tons, which ranks first in Japan, and is in the forefront of the world. [^Back]
 財務省. 年次別法人企業統計調査概要平成28年度. (2017-09-01) [2017-12-29]. http://www.mof.go.jp/pri/reference/ssc/results/h28.pdf
 内閣府. 景気動向指数 (速報, 改定値) (月次) 結果. (2017-12-25) [2018-01-14]. http://www.esri.cao.go.jp/jp/stat/di/di.html
 日本銀行. 第175回全国企業短期経済観測調査, 売上高経常利益率の推移, 図表3. (2017-12-15) [2017-12-29]. http://www.boj.or.jp/statistics/tk/gaiyo/2016/index.htm/
 財務省. 四半期別法人企業統計調査概要―平成29年度10~12月期―. (2018-03-01) [2018-05-14]. https://www.mof.go.jp/pri/reference/ssc/results/2017.10-12.pdf
 加藤裕己. 戦後日本の経済発展と金融構造, 2010, 267号: 36.
 財務省. 年次別法人企業統計調査平成元年度. (2017-12-15) [2018-01-18]. https://www.gof.go.jp/pri/publication/zaikin_geppo/hyou07.htm.
 上野剛志. まるわかり“内部留保問題”~内部留保の分析と課題解決に向けた考察. 東京:ニッセイ基礎レポート, 2017 (11–30): 2.
 みずほ総合研究所調査本部. 日本企業の稼ぐ力は高まったのかーー企業収益の国際比較に見る日本企業の変化と課題. 東京: みずほ総合研究所, 2017 (10-02) :2.
 Zhang, Y. Directors & Boards (董事会), (1): 82–85 (2017).
 経済産業省. 第46回海外事業活動基本調査概要. (2017-04-15) [2017-12-30]. http://www.meti.go./2017/04/20170425001/20170425001.html
 日本自動車工業会. 日本の自動車産業. (2017-12-30) [2018-02-19]. http://www.jama.or.jp/industry/industry/industry_4g1.html
 日本銀行国際局. 2015年の国際収支統計及び2015年末の本邦対外資産負債残高.東京: 日本銀行, 2016: 10–12.
 JAMA. 自動車統計月報. 東京: 日本自動車工業会, 2017: 9.
 DAIKIN. サステナビリティレポート2017. 大阪: ダイキン工業, 2017: 4.
 日経ものづくり. 特集コマツの強さ. 日経ものづくり, 2018 (4): 45–69.