Effect of biochar on bacterial community structure of pig manure composting

HUANG Jia-Qing1,2 YE Jing1,2 LI Yan-Chun1,2 LIN Yi1,2 LIU Cen-Wei1,2 WANG Yi-Xiang1,2

(1.Agricultural Ecology Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences (FAAS), Fuzhou, Fujian, China 350013)
(2.Fujian Key Laboratory of Agricultural Ecological Process of Red Soil Mountain, Fuzhou, Fujian, China 350013)
【Knowledge Link】composting; biochar

【Abstract】[Background] Bacterial community diversity affected the composting process and biochar influenced the growth of bacteria. However, the effect of biochar on the bacterial community structure for pig manure composting has not been reported yet. [Objective] According to the variation of bacterial community structure and composting temperature, appropriate amount of biochar was added during pig manure composting to improve the proportion of major bacteria for composting and composting efficiency. Thus, this study provides a reference for the joint application of biochar and pig manure composting. [Methods] The biochar content of 0%, 3%, 6%, and 9% was set, and four levels of biochar were selected in the high-temperature period and the stable-temperature period of composting process, respectively. According to the result of Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA, the effect of biochar content and composting temperature on bacterial community structure of pig manure composting was analyzed. [Results] At the phylum level, the bacteria with the highest abundance in pig manure composting were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus. At the genus level, the bacteria with the highest abundance in pig manure composting were Chryseolinea, Subgroup_6_norank, Steroidobacter, Anaerolineaceae, Nonomuraea, Longispora, Bacillus, Sporacetigenium, Luteimonas, Phyllobacteriaceae, Truepera, Rhodothermaceae, and Aquamicrobium. The variation of biochar content could promote or inhibit the growth of major bacteria in pig manure composting. As the content of biochar increased, the abundance of Bacillus, Streptomyces, Rhodothermaceae, and Firmicutes increased, whereas the abundance of Chryseolinea, Longispora, and Steroidobacter decreased. In the high-temperature composting period, the abundance of Firmicutes, Bacillus, and Streptomyces was greater than that in the stable-temperature composting period, while that of Chloroflexi, Anaerolineaceae, and Longispora was lower than that in the stable-temperature composting period. The number of bacterial communities in high-temperature composting period was up to 70, significantly larger than that (15) in the stable-temperature composting period. Among them, the number of bacteria playing a major role in pig manure composting was up to 7 (Rhizobiales, Incertae_Sedis, Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Xanthomonadales, Gammaproteobacteria, and Steroidobacter) in the high-temperature period, while only three (Micromonosporales, Longispora and Micromonosporaceae) were found in the stable-temperature period. The bacterial diversity of pig manure composting in high-temperature period was significantly higher than that in stable-temperature period. After biochar was added to pig manure composting, environmental factors (electrical conductivity, water content, temperature, and pH) had no significant effect on the major bacteria of pig manure composting. β-Proteobacteria, Rhodothermaceae, Phyllobacteriaceae, and Bacterium were significantly affected by the water content, temperature, and pH. [Conclusion] The content of biochar and composting temperature could change the bacterial community structure of pig manure composting and significantly increase the number and diversity of bacteria in pig manure composting in the high-temperature period. The electrical conductivity, water content, temperature, and pH of pig manure composting could affect the growth of composting bacteria, but the effect on bacteria with the highest abundance in pig manure composting was not significant.

【Keywords】 Biochar; Pig manure composting; Bacterial community diversity; High-throughput sequencing; Environmental factors;


【Funds】 National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0501404-3) Public Science and Technology Project of Fujian Province (2020R11010028-3)

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This Article


CN: 11-1996/Q

Vol 47, No. 05, Pages 1477-1491

May 2020


Article Outline



  • 1 Materials and methods
  • 2 Results and analysis
  • 3 Discussion and conclusions
  • References