Ge Nanoparticles in MXene Sheets: One-step Synthesis and Highly Improved Electrochemical Property in Lithium-ion Batteries

GUO Si-Lin1,2 KANG Shuai1,2 LU Wen-Qiang1,2

(1.Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, China 400714)
(2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, China 400714)

【Abstract】Ge nanoparticles were synthesized uniformly on MXene sheets via a one-step chemical solution method. The morphology of Ge/MXene was characterized by SEM and TEM. The formation process and optimized synthesis condition were analyzed carefully. Ge/MXene was used as anode for lithium-ion batteries. Their electrochemical performance, including capacity, rate and cycling stability, were tested and evaluated. Ge/MXene exhibited a greatly improved capacity of 1 200 mAh/g during the first hundred cycles at 0.2C with a loading of 1 mg/cm2. A capacity of 450 mAh/g at a higher loading of 2 mg/cm2 was obtained after 100 cycles. The excellence in electrochemistry was attributed to the high conductivity of MXene and its accommodable interlayer space.

【Keywords】 MXene; Ge nanoparticles; lithium-ion batteries; anode materials;

【DOI】

【Funds】 Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (2019374) CCIGIT Young Innovators Awards (Y82A240H10) Chongqing Innovators Program for Returned Overseas Scholars (cx2018152)

Download this article

    References

    [1] LIU T, LIN L, BI X, et al. In situ quantification of interphasial chemistry in Li-ion battery. Nat. Nanotechnol., 2019, 14 (1): 50–56.

    [2] JEŻOWSKI P, CROSNIER O, DEUNF E, et al. Safe and recyclable lithium-ion capacitors using sacrificial organic lithium salt. Nat. Mater., 2017, 17 (2): 167–173.

    [3] TONG X, ZHANG F, CHEN G, et al. Core-shell aluminum@carbon nanospheres for dual-ion batteries with excellent cycling performance under high rates. Adv. Energy Mater., 2018, 8 (6): 1701967.

    [4] NAYAK P K, ERICKSON E M, SCHIPPER F, et al. Review on challenges and recent advances in the electrochemical performance of high capacity Li-and Mn-rich cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. Adv. Energy Mater., 2018, 8 (8): 1702397.

    [5] WINTER M, BARNETT B, XU K. Before Li ion batteries. Chem. Rev., 2018, 118 (23): 11433–11456.

    [6] DING J, HU W, PAEK E, et al. Review of hybrid ion capacitors: from aqueous to lithium to sodium. Chem. Rev., 2018, 118 (14): 6457–6498.

    [7] DENG J, BAE C, MARCICKI J, et al. Safety modelling and testing of lithium-ion batteries in electrified vehicles. Nat. Energy, 2018, 3 (4): 261.

    [8] YANG Z, GU L, HU Y, et al. Atomic-scale structure–property relationships in lithium ion battery electrode materials. Ann. Rev. Mater. Res., 2017, 47 (1): 175–198.

    [9] SUN Y, LIU N, CUI Y. Promises and challenges of nanomaterials for lithium-based rechargeable batteries. Nat. Energy, 2016, 1 (7): 16071.

    [10] SCHMIDT O, HAWKES A, GAMBHIR A, et al. The future cost of electrical energy storage based on experience rates. Nat. Energy, 2017, 2 (8): 17118.

    [11] ALBERTUS P, BABINEC S, LITZELMAN S, et al. Status and challenges in enabling the lithium metal electrode for high-energy and low-cost rechargeable batteries. Nat. Energy, 2018, 3 (1): 16–21.

    [12] CHOI J W, AURBACH D. Promise and reality of post-lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities. Nat. Rev. Mater., 2016, 1 (4): 16013.

    [13] CHAN C K, PENG H, LIU G, et al. High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires. Nat. Nanotechnol., 2008, 3 (1): 31–35.

    [14] MO R, ROONEY D, SUN K, et al. 3D Nitrogen-doped graphene foam with encapsulated germanium/nitrogen-doped graphene yolk-shell nanoarchitecture for high-performance flexible Li-ion battery. Nat. Commun., 2017, 8: 13949.

    [15] LIU Z, YU Q, ZHAO Y, et al. Silicon oxides: a promising family of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Chem. Soc. Rev., 2019, 48 (1): 285–309.

    [16] TARASCON J M, ARMAND M. Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature, 2001, 414 (6861): 359–367.

    [17] MA J, SUNG J, HONG J, et al. Towards maximized volumetric capacity via pore-coordinated design for large-volume-change lithium-ion battery anodes. Nat. Commun., 2019, 10 (1): 475.

    [18] KOVALENKO I, ZDYRKO B, MAGASINSKI A, et al. A major constituent of brown algae for use in high-capacity Li-ion batteries. Science, 2011, 334 (6052): 75–79.

    [19] WU Z, REN W, WEN L, et al. Graphene anchored with Co3O4 nanoparticles as anode of lithium ion batteries with enhanced reversible capacity and cyclic performance. ACS Nano, 2010, 4 (6): 3187–3194.

    [20] GOGOTSI Y. Transition metal carbides go 2D. Nat. Mater., 2015, 14 (11): 1079–1080.

    [21] NAGUIB M, HALIM J, LU J, et al. New two-dimensional niobium and vanadium carbides as promising materials for Li-ion batteries. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135 (43): 15966–15969.

    [22] NAGUIB M, KURTOGLU M, PRESSER V, et al. Two-dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3AlC2. Adv. Mater., 2011, 23 (37): 4248–4253.

    [23] FU Z, ZHANG Q, LEGUT D, et al. Stabilization and strengthening effects of functional groups in two-dimensional titanium carbide. Phys. Rev. B, 2016, 94 (10): 104103.

    [24] WENG H, RANJBAR A, LIANG Y, et al. Large-gap two-dimensional topological insulator in oxygen functionalized MXene. Phys. Rev. B, 2015, 92 (7): 075436.

    [25] ZHAO S, KANG W, XUE J. Manipulation of electronic and magnetic properties of M2C (M = Hf, Nb, Sc, Ta, Ti, V, Zr) monolayer by applying mechanical strains. Appl. Phys. Lett., 2014, 104 (13): 133106.

    [26] MA Z, HU Z, ZHAO X, et al. Tunable band structures of heterostructured bilayers with transition-metal dichalcogenide and MXene monolayer. J. Phys. Chem. C, 2014, 118 (10): 5593–5599.

    [27] LIANG X, GARSUCH A, NAZAR F. Sulfur cathodes based on conductive MXene nanosheets for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2015, 54 (13): 3907–3911.

    [28] ZHAO X, LIU M, CHEN Y, et al. Fabrication of layered Ti3C2 with an accordion-like structure as a potential cathode material for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries. J. Mater. Chem. A, 2015, 3 (15): 7870–7876.

    [29] LUO J, TAO X, ZHANG J, et al. Sn4+ ion decorated highly conductive Ti3C2 MXene: promising lithium-ion anodes with enhanced volumetric capacity and cyclic performance. ACS Nano, 2016, 10 (2): 2491–2499.

    [30] LIAN P, DONG Y, WU Z, et al. Alkalized Ti3C2 MXene nanoribbons with expanded interlayer spacing for high-capacity sodium and potassium ion batteries. Nano Energy, 2017, 40: 1–8.

    [31] DONG Y, ZHENG S, QIN J, et al. All-MXene-based integrated electrode constructed by Ti3C2 nanoribbon framework host and nanosheet interlayer for high-energy-density Li–S batteries. ACS Nano, 2018, 12 (3): 2381–2388.

    [32] MEDVEDEV A G, MIKHAYLOV A, GRISHANOV A, et al. GeO2 thin film deposition on graphene oxide by the hydrogen peroxide route: evaluation for lithium-ion battery anode. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2017, 9 (10): 9152–9160.

    [33] LI D, WANG H, LIU H, et al. A new strategy for achieving a high performance anode for lithium ion batteries-encapsulating germanium nanoparticles in carbon nanoboxes. Adv. Energy Mater., 2016, 6 (5): 1501666.

    [34] GAO C, KIM N, VILLEGAS R, et al. Germanium on seamless graphene carbon nanotube hybrids for lithium ion anodes. Carbon, 2017, 123: 433–439.

    [35] ZHANG W, PANG H, SUN W, et al. Metal-organic frameworks derived germanium oxide nanosheets for large reversible Li-ion storage. Electrochem. Commun., 2017, 84: 80–85.

    [36] FULLER C S, SEVERIENS J C. Mobility of impurity ions in germanium and silicon. Phys. Rev., 1954, 96 (1): 21–24.

    [37] GRAETZ J, AHN C C, YAZAMI R, et al. Nanocrystalline and thin film germanium electrodes with high lithium capacity and high rate capabilities. J. Electrochem. Soc., 2004, 151 (5): A698–A702.

    [38] LIU X H, HUANG S, PICRAUX S T, et al. Reversible nanopore formation in Ge nanowires during lithiation–delithiation cycling: an in situ transmission electron microscopy study. Nano Lett., 2011, 11 (9): 3991–3997.

    [39] WANG D, CHANG Y, WANG Q, et al. Surface chemistry and electrical properties of germanium nanowires. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126 (37): 11602–11611.

This Article

ISSN:1000-324X

CN: 31-1363/TQ

Vol 35, No. 01, Pages 105-111

January 2020

Downloads:2

Share
Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Experimental method
  • 2 Results and analysis
  • 3 Conclusion
  • References