The interpretation of the basic form of “Taiwan Confucianism” after Taiwan’s retrocession

CHANG Qianfan1 BI Kun2

(1.Peking University)
(2.School of Public Administration, Jinlin University)

【Abstract】This paper explores the existence of “Taiwan Confucianism” from three dimensions to the definition of Confucianism, and probes into the scope of the interpretation of “Taiwan Confucianism” after Taiwan’s retrocession in 1945, and sketches the political, cultural and social background of “Taiwan Confucianism” since this period. Then, the paper combs through and further explains on the three basic forms, namely, “official Confucianism,” “folk Confucianism” and “Confucianism at social and living levels. Finally, it elucidates the contemporary construction and social values of “Taiwan Confucianism” in order to present the ideological and cultural significance and reveal its role in curbing “cultural independence of Taiwan” and in constructing the common cultural cognitive system across the strait.

【Keywords】 Taiwan Confucianism; official Confucianism; folk Confucianism; social life-level Confucianism; politics; form;

【DOI】

【Funds】 Youth Project of National Social Science Fund (15CZX030)

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(Translated by YE Kefei)

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    [1]. [1] This paper examines the basic form of “Taiwan Confucianism” in the period between Taiwan’s retrocession in 1945 and the early 1990s. It focuses on the development of Confucianism after the retreat of the Kuomintang back to Taiwan in 1949. If we add certain words to “Taiwan Confucianism” at this stage, then “post-retrocession period” is more suitable for interpretation at the cultural level than the “post-1949 period.” [^Back]

    [2]. [2] Even in the stormy era of the Japanese occupation, Confucianism was still active in the normal life of people in Taiwan, featuring respecting teachers, filial piety, valuing their parents and families, as well as paying attention to sacrificial customs. Confucians also took preserving the cultural lifeline of Confucianism as their responsibility and spared no effort to carry out anti-Japanese activities. See Chen, Z. Taiwan Confucianism: Origins, Development and Transformation (台湾儒学: 起源、发展与转化). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 25–28 (2012). [^Back]

    [3]. [3] Chen, M. & Chen, X. Taiwan Retrocession and Five Years after the Retrocession (Vol. 1) (台湾光复和光复后五年省情). Nanjing: Nanjing Publishing House, 49–56 (1989), quoted from Gu, N. doctoral thesis, Peking University, 56 (2013). [^Back]

    [4]. [4] See Gu, N. doctoral thesis, Peking University, (2013). [^Back]

    [5]. [5] Among them, one of the most in-depth research is done by Pan, C. The Tradition and Modernity of Confucianism in Taiwan (台湾儒学的传统与现代). Taipei: Taiwan University Publishing Center, (2008); Chen, Z. Taiwan Confucianism: Origins, Development and Transformation (台湾儒学: 起源、发展与转化). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, (2012); Chen, M. The Heritage and Political Identification of Confucianism in Taiwan (台湾儒学传承与政治认同). Fuzhou: Haifeng Press, (2014). In addition, in Zhang, W. Confucianism and Contemporary Taiwan (儒学与当代台湾). Fuzhou: Fujian People’s Publishing House, (2010), the author did not use “Taiwan Confucianism” to name the book, but the concept of “Taiwan Confucianism” was directly used in the book. In addition, in Huang, J. Confucianism and Modern Taiwan (儒学与现代台湾). Beijing: China Social Science Press, (2001), the author did not cite the concept of “Confucianism in Taiwan.” His researching objects included Confucianism and post-war Taiwan society and the thought of Xu Fuguan. [^Back]

    [6]. [6] In Chen, Z. Taiwan Confucianism: Origins, Development and Transformation (台湾儒学: 起源、发展与转化). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, (2012), the author stated in the preliminary preface that she published the paper Contemporary Confucianism and the Localization Movement in Taiwan at the Third Seminar of Academia Sinica on Contemporary Confucianism held in Taiwan in 1995, proposing “Taiwan Confucianism” as a new field of thought. Later, in Chen, Z. Taiwan Confucianism: Origins,Development andTransformation (台湾儒学: 起源、发展与转化). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, (2012), the author demonstrated the formulation of “Taiwan Confucianism” from the perspective of “the Confucian classics” and “the right.” [^Back]

    [7]. [7] See Cui, D. Introduction to Confucianism (儒学引论). Beijing: People’s Publishing House, 1–3 (2001); Gan, C. An General Introduction to Confucianism (儒学概论). Beijing: China Renmin University Press, 1–3 (2009). [^Back]

    [8]. [8] See Cui, D. Introduction to Confucianism (儒学引论). Beijing: People’s Publishing House, 4 (2001). [^Back]

    [9]. [9] Jiang, Q. Political Confucianism (政治儒学). Fuzhou: Fujian Education Press, 16 (2014). [^Back]

    [10]. [10] See Gan, C. Institutionalized Confucianism and Its Dissolution (Revised Edition) (制度化儒家及其解体 (修订本) ). Beijing: China Renmin University Press, 2 (2012). [^Back]

    [11]. [11] See Cui, D. Introduction to Confucianism (儒学引论). Beijing: People’s Publishing House, 3 (2001). [^Back]

    [12]. [12] Liu Shuxian tends to analyze Confucianism into the following three levels for your reference: (1) Confucianism of the spirit refers to the great tradition of Confucius and Mencius, Cheng Yi, Zhu Xi, Lu Jiuyuan and Wang Yangming; (2) Politicalized Confucianism, refers to the thoughts adopted by the royal court since the Han Dynasty; (3) Folk Confucianism refers to values and beliefs popular among the ordinary people. See Liu, S. Confucianism and the Modern World (儒家思想与现代世界). Taipei: Institute of Chinese Philosophy of Academia Sinica, 1 (1997), quoted from Huang, J. Confucianism and Modern Taiwan (儒学与现代台湾). Beijing: China Social Sciences Press, 6 (2001). [^Back]

    [13]. [13] Shen Guangwen went to Taiwan in 1652, nine years before Zheng Chenggong. [^Back]

    [14]. [14] See Chen, Z. Taiwan Confucianism: Origins, Development and Transformation (台湾儒学: 起源、发展与转化). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 5–6 (2012). [^Back]

    [15]. [15] See Lian, H. A General History of Taiwan (台湾通史). Beijing: Commercial Press, 602–604 (2010); Chen, Z. Taiwan Confucianism: Origins, Development and Transformation(台湾儒学: 起源、发展与转化). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 119–122 (2012). [^Back]

    [16]. [16] See Zhang, H. & Tao, W. Taiwan History (台湾史稿). Nanjing: Phoenix Press, 98 (2012). [^Back]

    [17]. [17] See Chen, Z. Taiwan Confucianism: Origins, Development and Transformation(台湾儒学: 起源、发展与转化). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 6–10 (2012). [^Back]

    [18]. [18] See Chen, Z. Taiwan Confucianism: Origins, Development and Transformation (台湾儒学: 起源、发展与转化). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 11 (2012). [^Back]

    [19]. [19] See Lin, A. Journal of Sun Yat-sen University (Social Science Edition) (中山大学学报 (社会科学版)), (3) (2006); Chen, H. Journal of China University of Mining & Technology (Social Sciences Edition) (中国矿业大学学报 (社会科学版)), (4) (2011). [^Back]

    [20]. [20] The concept of “the modern world” was proposed by Japanese scholar Naito Torajiro, whose theory of Tang-Song transition holds that the Tang Dynasty was the end of the Middle Ages, and the Song Dynasty was the beginning of the modern world. The concept of “the modern world” is used here to describe the historical stage from the Song Dynasty to the late Qing Dynasty. [^Back]

    [21]. [21] See Yang, N. Localized Modern Forms of Confucianism: The Comparative Study on the Interactions of Three Knowledge Groups (Incremental Studies) (儒学地域化的近代形态:三大知识群体互动的比较研究(增订本)). Beijing: SDX Joint Publishing Company, Chapter 2–4 (2011). [^Back]

    [22]. [22] See Yang, N. The Principal Scheme of Sensitivity: 10 Years’ Reflection (“感觉主义的谱系”:新史学十年的反思之旅). Beijing: Pecking University Press, 5 (2012). [^Back]

    [23]. [23] Li, Ming. Contemporary Confucianism and the Civilization in the East Asia: Regions and Development (现代儒家与东亚文明:地域与发展). Taipei: Institute of Chinese Philosophy of Academia Sinica, (2002), quoted from Pan C. The Traditions and Modernity of Confucianism in Taiwan (台湾儒学的传统与现代). Taipei: Taiwan University Press Center, 199 (2008). [^Back]

    [24]. [24] See Chen, Z. Taiwan Confucianism: Origins, Development and Transformation (台湾儒学: 起源、发展与转化). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 2 (2012). [^Back]

    [25]. [25] See Zhang, W. Confucianism and the Contemporary Taiwan (儒学与当代台湾). Fuzhou: Fujian People’s Publishing House, 1–2 (2010). [^Back]

    [26]. [26] Xu Fuguan, Mou Zongsan and other new Confucians and famous scholars like Qian Mu were successively passed away in the 1980s and 1990s. Taiwan’s “Folk Confucianism” was in the doldrums. In the late 1980s, Taiwan’s politics was “lifting its martial laws” and the promotion of “official Confucianism” shrunk largely as a result, but Confucianism on the island’s social level has been inexhaustible. It should be said that since the 1980s until now, the new “Taiwan Confucianism” was still being constructed. Therefore, this paper sets the beginning time of the “Taiwan Confucianism” after the retrocession in the 1990s. [^Back]

    [27]. [27] See Huang, J. Confucianism and Modern Taiwan (儒学与现代台湾). Beijing: China Social Sciences Press, 6–7 (2001). [^Back]

    [28]. [28] See Huang, J. Confucianism and Modern Taiwan (儒学与现代台湾). Beijing: China Social Sciences Press, 34 (2001). [^Back]

    [29]. [29] See Gu, N. doctoral thesis, Peking University, (2013). [^Back]

    [30]. [30] Based on the above arguments, the following “Taiwan Confucianism,” “official Confucianism,” “folk Confucianism,” and “Confucianism at social and living levels” are used as the concept of establishment. No quotation marks are added. [^Back]

    [31]. [31] See Huang, J. The Transformation of Taiwan after the War and its Prospects (战后台湾的转型及其展望). Taipei: Taiwan University Publishing Center, 36 (2011). [^Back]

    [32]. [32] See Sang, B. & Zhu, F. Dai Jitao (戴季陶卷). Beijing: China Renmin University Press, 412–435 (2014). [^Back]

    [33]. [33] The official Confucianism did not originate after the Kuomintang’s retreating back to Taiwan. From the perspective of the political and social movements of the Republic of China from the 1920s to the end of 1940s, Confucianism is a thread of thought throughout the whole process. See Gu, N. doctoral thesis, Peking University, (2013). [^Back]

    [34]. [34] Since then, the “Chinese culture revival movement committee” has been reorganized as the “Chinese cultural association.” See Huang, J. The Transformation of Taiwan after the War and its Prospects (战后台湾的转型及其展望). Taipei: Taiwan University Press Center, 173 (2011). [^Back]

    [35]. [35] See Chang, C. Reconstruction of Systems according to the ancient systems and Evolution for Three Generations: Kang Youwei’s Studies on the Theory of Gongyang (“托古改制”与“三世进化”——康有为公羊学思想研究). Beijing: Peking University Press, 291–298 (2015). [^Back]

    [36]. [36] See Huang, J. Humanistic spirit of East Asian Confucianism (东亚儒家人文精神). Taipei: Taiwan University Press Center, 243 (2016). [^Back]

    [37]. [37] See Huang, J. The Transformation of Taiwan after the War and its Prospects (战后台湾的转型及其展望). Taipei: Taiwan University Press Center, 172–173 (2011). [^Back]

    [38]. [38] See The Transformation of Taiwan after the War and its Prospects (战后台湾的转型及其展望). Taipei: Taiwan University Press Center, 173 (2011). [^Back]

    [39]. [39] See The Transformation of Taiwan after the War and its Prospects (战后台湾的转型及其展望). Taipei: Taiwan University Press Center, 173 (2011). [^Back]

    [40]. [40] See Huang, J. Confucianism and Modern Taiwan (儒学与现代台湾). Beijing: China Social Sciences Press, 283–285 (2001). [^Back]

    [41]. [41] The most representative one is the division of “four generations” proposed in Zheng, J. An Introduction to Modern New Confucianism (现代新儒学概论). Nanning: Guangxi People’s Publishing House, (1990). The first generation of new Confucianism includes Liang Shuming, Zhang Junli, and Xiong Shili; The second generation includes Feng Youlan, He Lin, and Qian Mu; The third generation includes Mou Zongsan, Tang Junyi, and Xu Fuguan; The fourth generation includes Du Weiming, Liu Shuxian, and Cai Renhou. According to Zheng Jiadong, the division of “three generations” is also common. Namely, the first generation includes Liang Shuming, Zhang Junli, Xiong Shili, Feng Youlan, and He Lin; The second generation includes Tang Junyi, Mou Zongsan, Xu Fuguan, Fang Dongmei, and Qian Mu; The third generation includes Du Weiming and Liu Shuxian. For details, see the introduction of Zheng, J. An Introduction to Modern New Confucianism (现代新儒学概论). Nanning: Guangxi People’s Publishing House, 14–16 (1990). In addition, Fang Keli mentioned in The Development of Modern New Confucianism that the above-mentioned division of “three generations” was the view of Du Weiming and other scholars. See Fang, K. Modern New Confucianism and China’s Modernization (现代新儒学与中国现代化). Changchun: Changchun Publishing House, 55–56 (2008). [^Back]

    [42]. [42] See Liu, S. in Dongfang, S. (eds.)The Study of Confucian Philosophy: Problems, Methods and Future Development. Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 33 (2010). [^Back]

    [43]. [43] After 1949, Qian Mu founded the New Asia College in Hong Kong. He went to Taiwan for lectures for several years, and then settled in Taiwan since 1967. [^Back]

    [44]. [44] The “general new Confucianism in Hong Kong and Taiwan” is used here because Qian Mu did not think that he belonged to a group of new Confucian scholars represented by Tang Junyi, Mou Zongsan, and Xu Fuguan. Tang, Mou, and Xu, who all followed the same mentor, Xiong Shili, were committed to promoting Xiong Shili’s “spiritual Confucianism.” In 1958, together with Zhang Junli, they drafted the New Confucian Declaration (China’s Cultural Declaration to the World). At the time, Qian Mu did not sign the declaration, and his method of learning was different from that of Xiong’s disciples. However, Qian Mu, after going to Taiwan, was undoubtedly one of the most eloquent scholars in scholars of Taiwan who have elucidated Confucian thoughts. Therefore, it is also true that these scholars classify them as “a general new Confucianism of Hong Kong and Taiwan.” See Yu, Y. in He, J. (eds.), Yu Yingshi’s Academic Thoughts. Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, (2010). [^Back]

    [45]. [45] See Mou, Z. Complete Works of Mr. Mou Zongsan (牟宗三先生全集). Taipei: Linking Publishing Company, (9) (2003). [^Back]

    [46]. [46] See Mou, Z. in the editorial committee of Quanji (eds.). Complete Works of Mou Zongsan (牟宗三先生全集). Taipei: Linking Publishing Company, vol. 5–7, 29, 28, 30 (2003). Xu, F. History of Chinese Thought (中国思想史论). Shanghai: Shanghai Bookstore Publishing House, (2004). Xu, F. Confucianism and Modern Society (儒家思想与现代社会). Beijing: Jiuzhou Press, (2014). [^Back]

    [47]. [47] This refers to the “narrow sense of the new Confucianism of Taiwan and Hong Kong.” Tang Junyi, Mou Zongsan, Xu Fuguan, and other disciples of Xiong Shili are the first to invent the Confucian “study of the nature of mind.” [^Back]

    [48]. [48] See Luo, Y. in Fang, K. & Li, J. (eds.), Cases of New Modern Confucian School (现代新儒家学案). Beijing: Chinese Social Sciences Press, 448 (1995). [^Back]

    [49]. [49] See Luo, Y. in Fang, K. & Li, J. (eds.), Cases of New Modern Confucian School (现代新儒家学案). Beijing: Chinese Social Sciences Press, 458 (1995). [^Back]

    [50]. [50] See Luo, Y. in Fang, K. & Li, J. (eds.), Cases of New Modern Confucian School (现代新儒家学案). Beijing: Chinese Social Sciences Press, 453–454 (1995). [^Back]

    [51]. [51] See Huang, J. Confucianism and Modern Taiwan (儒学与现代台湾). Beijing: China Social Sciences Press, (2001); Lin, A. Confucian Revolution: from “New Confucianism” to Post-“New Confucianism.” Beijing: The Commercial Press, (2011). [^Back]

    [52]. [52] See Song, Z. in the editorial department of the Journal of Literary History Literature, History, and Philosophy (eds.), Confucianism: History, Thought and Belief. Beijing: Commercial Press, 31–35 (2011). [^Back]

    [53]. [53] See Zhang, Y. Yangming School’s Practice in Rural Area (阳明学的乡里实践). Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press, 1 (2017). [^Back]

    [54]. [54] See Song, Z. in the editorial department of the Literature, History, and Philosophy (eds.), Confucianism: History, Thought and Belief. Beijing: The Commercial Press, 36 (2011). [^Back]

    [55]. [55] Quoted from Huang, Y. Academic Journal of Zhongzhou (中州学刊), (10) (2016). [^Back]

    [56]. [56] Qian Mu and Fang Dongmei once taught Confucianism for the “military and governmental departments” of the Kuomintang authority. [^Back]

    [57]. [57] See Wang, C. Twenty Years of Classics Reading (读经二十年). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, Preface 2, Preface 3 (2014). [^Back]

    [58]. [58] See Huang, J. Confucianism and Modern Taiwan (儒学与现代台湾). Beijing: China Social Science Press, 31 (2001), fine-tuned when quoting. [^Back]

    [59]. [59] Chen, L. The Ontology of Benevolence (仁学本体论). Beijing: SDX Joint Publishing Company, (2014). Mou Z. New Benevolence: the Pursuit of Love (新仁学——爱的追寻). Beijing: People’s Publishing House, (2013). [^Back]

This Article

ISSN:1006-6683

CN: 11-1728/C

Vol , No. 03, Pages 68-78

June 2017

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Abstract

  • 1 The establishment and interpretation of the scope of “Taiwan Confucianism”
  • 2 The basic form of “Taiwan Confucianism” after the retrocession
  • 3 Conclusion: contemporary construction and practical significance of Taiwan Confucianism
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