Suitable habitat prediction and overlap analysis of two sympatric species, giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in Liangshan Mountains
(2.Sichuan Station of Wild Life Survey and Management, Chengdu 610081)
(3.Shifang Monitoring Station of Jiuding Mountain Provincial Nature Reserve of Sichuan, Shifang, Sichuan 618400)
【Abstract】Understanding spatial distribution and habitat overlap of sympatric species is essential to developing integrated policies for conserving species and regional biodiversity. This study combined data from the 4th National Survey of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and long-term field survey. We used the Maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) to predict the distributions of two sympatric bears, the giant panda and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in Liangshan Mountains. Based on spatial distribution of two species, we measured habitat fragmentation and spatial overlap of habitat use, and assessed environmental requirements of both species. Our results indicated that: (1) both species had similar distributions of suitable habitats, both were mainly distributed on the ridges of Liangshan Mountains. The suitable habitat area of giant panda and Asiatic black bear were 1 383.84 km2 and 2 411.49 km2, respectively. (2) The habitats of both species were fragmented and separated into many patches. However, the habitat connectivity for the Asiatic black bear was better than for giant panda. (3) The niche overlap indices, calculated by ENMTools, showed that two species had high overlap in their ecological niche (D = 0.654 and I = 0.901). The overlapping habitat comprised 958.29 km2 of the study area, which contained 69.25% of giant panda habitat and 39.74% of Asiatic black bear habitat. (4) We used permutation techniques to estimate the importance of environmental variables in the MaxEnt model. Distance to residents and altitude were the most influential predictors for both species. Vegetation types and mean temperature of coldest quarter were the third and fourth important predictors for giant panda, while the annual maximum enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and distance to roads was important for the Asiatic black bear. To protect these two species more effectively, a series of measures have to be adopted, such as strengthening vegetation restoration, controlling disturbance, and enhancing connectivity between habitat patches. We recommend that a systematic, multi-species conservation plan should be developed.
【Keywords】 giant panda; Asiatic black bear; MaxEnt; conservation; sympatry; Liangshan Mountains;
Barrows CW, Swartz MB, Hodges WL, Allen MF, Rotenberry JT, Li BL, Scott TA, Chen XW (2005) A framework for monitoring multiple-species conservation plans. Journal of Wildlife Management, 69, 1333–1345.
Bashir T, Bhattacharya T, Poudyal K, Qureshi Q, Sathyakumar S (2018) Understanding patterns of distribution and space-use by Ursus thibetanus in Khangchendzonga, India: Initiative towards conservation. Mammalian Biology, 92, 11–20.
Cao MC, Liu GH, Shan K, Hou YX, Wang MC, Li DL, Shen WM (2010) A multi-scale assessment of habitat suitability of red-crowned crane at the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, Shandong, China. Biodiversity Science, 18, 283–291 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Di Minin E, Slotow R, Hunter LTB, Pouzols FM, Toivonen T, Verburg PH, Leader-Williams N, Petracca L, Moilanen A (2016) Global priorities for national carnivore conservation under land use change. Scientific Reports, 6, 23814.
Fahrig L (1997) Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population extinction. Journal of Wildlife Management, 61, 603–610.
Fan LQ, Dong L, Zhang SL, Ran JH, Yue BS (2010) Landscape pattern of giant panda habitat in the Liangshan Mountains, Sichuan, China. Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology, 16, 179–184 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Forestry Department of Sichuan Province (2015) The Panda of Sichuan—The 4th Survey Report on Giant Panda in Sichuan Province. Sichuan Science and Technology Press, Chengdu (in Chinese).
Fritz SA, Bininda-Emonds ORP, Purvis A (2009) Geographical variation in predictors of mammalian extinction risk: Big is bad, but only in the tropics. Ecology Letters, 12, 538–549.
Hou WR, Hu JC (1997) The present situations of China’s bear resources and protection. Journal of Sichuan Teachers College (Natural Science), 18, 287–291 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Hu JC, Schaller GB (1985) Wolong’s Giant Panda. Sichuan Science and Technology Press, Chengdu (in Chinese).
Hu JC (1990) Feeding ecology of the black bear in Tangjiahe Natural Reserve. Journal of Sichuan Teachers College, 11, 182–194 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Hu JC, Wang CQ (1993) Study on food habits of giant pandas in Liangshan Mountains. Journal of Sichuan Teachers College (Natural Science), 14, 290–295 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Huang YY, Qiao B, Wei W, Dong X (2014) Population distribution of giant panda and it’s sympatric species in Labahe Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment, 30, 189–195 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Hwang MH, Garshelis DL, Wu YH, Wang Y (2010) Home ranges of Asiatic black bears in the central mountains of Taiwan: Gauging whether a reserve is big enough. Ursus, 21, 81–96.
Liu C, White M, Newell G (2013) Selecting thresholds for the prediction of species occurrence with presence-only data. Journal of Biogeography, 40, 778–789.
Liu F, Mcshea W, Garshelis D, Zhu XJ, Wang DJ, Gong J, Chen YP (2009) Spatial distribution as a measure of conservation needs: An example with Asiatic black bears in south-western China. Diversity and Distributions, 15, 649–659.
Lu QB, Hu JC (2003) Preliminary analysis on the habitat selection of black bears in the Minshan Mountains. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 23, 98–103 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Ma YQ, Hu JC, Zhai QL (1994) Bears in China. Sichuan Science and Technology Press, Chengdu (in Chinese).
Malcolm KD, Mcshea WJ, Garshelis DL, Luo SJ, Deelen TRV, Liu F, Li S, Miao L, Wang DJ, Brown JL (2014) Increased stress in Asiatic black bears relates to food limitation, crop raiding, and foraging beyond nature reserve boundaries in China. Global Ecology and Conservation, 2, 267–276.
Manandhar R, Odeh IOA, Ancev T (2009) Improving the accuracy of land use and land cover classification of Landsat data using post-classification enhancement. Remote Sensing, 1, 330–344.
McG arigal K, Marks BJ (1995) Fragstats: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Quantifying Landscape Structure. General Technical Report, Portland.
Mc Garigal K (2015) Fragstats Help. http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/documents/fragstats.help.4.2.pdf. (accessed on 2018-04-05)
Phillips SJ, Anderson RP, Schapire RE (2006) Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231–259.
Qi DW, Hu YB, Gu XD, Li M, Wei FW (2009) Ecological niche modeling of the sympatric giant and red pandas on a mountain-range scale. Biodiversity and Conservation, 18, 2127–2141.
Qi DW, Zhang SN, Zhang ZJ, Hu YB, Yang XY, Wang HJ, Wei FW (2011) Different habitat preferences of male and female giant pandas. Journal of Zoology, 285, 205–214.
Qi DW, Zhang SN, Zhang ZJ, Hu YB, Yang XY, Wang HJ, Wei FW (2012) Measures of giant panda habitat selection across multiple spatial scales for species conservation. Journal of Wildlife Management, 76, 1092–1100.
Qi ZX, Xu WH, Xiong XY, Ouyang ZY, Zheng H, Gan DX (2011) Assessment of potential habitat for Ursus thibetanus in the Qinling Mountains. Biodiversity Science, 19, 343–352 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Qing J, Xu C, Yang B, Yang ZS, Qi DW, Yang XY, Gu XD, Dai Q (2016) Corridor design for the giant panda in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 36, 1125–1133 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Qing J, Yang ZS, He K, Zhang ZJ, Gu XD, Yang XY, Zhang W, Yang B, Qi DW, Dai Q (2016) The minimum area requirements (MAR) for giant panda: An empirical study. Scientific Reports, 6, 37715.
Reid D, Jiang MD, Teng QT, Qin ZS, Hu JC (1991) Ecology of the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in Sichuan. Mammalia, 55, 221–238.
Ripple WJ, Estes JA, Beschta RL, Wilmers CC, Ritchie EG, Hebblewhite M, Berger J, Elmhagen B, Letnic M, Nelson MP, Schmitz OJ, Smith DW, Wallach AD, Wirsing AJ (2014) Status and ecological effects of the world’s largest carnivores. Science, 343, 1241484.
Schaller GB, Teng QT, Johnson KG, Wang XM, Shen HM, Hu JC (1989) The feeding ecology of giant pandas and Asiatic black bears in the Tangjiahe Reserve, China. In: Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution (ed. Gittleman JL), pp. 212–241. Springer, Boston.
Steinmetz R, Garshelis DL, Chutipong W, Seuaturien N (2011) The shared preference niche of sympatric Asiatic black bears and sun bears in a tropical forest mosaic. PLoS ONE, 6, e14509.
Wang F, Mcshea WJ, Wang DJ, Li S (2015) Shared resources between giant panda and sympatric wild and domestic mammals. Biological Conservation, 186, 319–325.
Wang RL, Li Q, Feng CH, Shi ZP (2017) Predicting potential ecological distribution of Locusta migratoria tibetensis in China using MaxEnt ecological niche modeling. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 37, 8556–8566 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Warren DL, Glor RE, Turelli M (2010) ENMTools: A toolbox for comparative studies of environmental niche models. Ecography, 33, 607–611.
Wei FW, Du WG, Zhan XJ, Li BG, Yang G, Fang SG, Zhang ZW, Li M (2016) Ecological restoration and conservation research of typical fragile ecosystems in China: Endangerment mechanisms and conservation technologies of endangered animals. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 36, 469–475 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Wei FW, Feng ZJ, Wang ZW (1999) Habitat selection by giant pandas and red pandas in Xiangling Mountains. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 45, 57–63 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Wei FW, Swaisgood R, Hu YB, Nie YG, Li Y, Zhang ZJ, Qi DW, Zhu LF (2015) Progress in the ecology and conservation of giant pandas. Conservation Biology, 29, 1497–1507.
Wu W, Li YH, Hu YM (2016) Simulation of potential habitat overlap between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in northeastern China. PeerJ, 4, e1756.
Wu ZJ, Li YM (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation on survial of animal populations. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 23, 2424–2435 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Xu Y, Wang B, Dou L, Ran JH, Liu SR, Yue HQ, Yang L, Zong JW, Li YJ, Li BJ (2017) Habitat selection by three sympatric high-mountain Galliformes. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 36, 258–265 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Yan ZG, Li JQ (2017) Assessment of ecosystem in giant panda distribution area based on entropy method and coefficient of variation. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 28, 4007–4016. (in Chinese with English abstract)
Yang CH, Zhang HM, Zhou XP, Wang PY, Wang XM (2006) Review of habitat selection in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Acta Ecologica Sinica, 26, 3442–3453 (in Chinese with English abstract).
York P, Evangelista P, Kumar S, Graham J, Flather C, Stohlgren T (2011) A habitat overlap analysis derived from Maxent for tamarisk and the south-western willow flycatcher. Frontiers of Earth Science, 5, 120–129.
Zhang SL, Ran JH, Tang MK, Du BB, Yang Q, Liu SC (2008) Landscape pattern analysis of red panda habitat in Liangshan Mountains. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 28, 4787–4795 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhang ZJ, Wei FW, Li M, Hu JC (2006) Winter microhabitat separation between giant and red pandas in Bashania faberi bamboo forest in Fengtongzhai Nature Reserve. Journal of Wildlife Management, 70, 231–235.
Zhang ZJ, Sheppard JK, Swaisgood RR, Wang G, Nie YG, Wei W, Zhao NX, Wei FW (2014) Ecological scale and seasonal heterogeneity in the spatial behaviors of giant pandas. Integrative Zoology, 9, 46–60.