Effects of annual precipitation pattern variation and different cultivation modes on the growth of Amaranthus retroflexus and Glycine max

JIANG Baiwen 1 LI Jing 1 CHEN Rui 1 LU Ping 1 LI Qi 1 XIAO Tongyu 1 BAI Yamei 1 ZHANG Xianfeng 2 LI Yiqi1

(1.College of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030)
(2.Experiment Practice and Demonstration Center, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030)

【Abstract】Global climate change will alter the temporal and spatial distributions of precipitation patterns. The effects of precipitation changes on crop seed germination and growth have been previously investigated. However, there has been limited research on the effects of precipitation changes on how invasive weeds compete with crops. Exploring the competition between exotic weeds and native crops under different annual precipitation patterns and cultivation modes will provide a theoretical basis to control alien weeds with impending changes to the global climate. In this study, we assessed how precipitation altered the competitive dynamics between two plants, Amaranthus retroflexus, a widespread invasive weed in agricultural ecosystem in Northeast China, and Glycine max, one of the important native crops in China. We conducted pot experiments under three patterns of annual precipitation: the average annual precipitation pattern (the average total precipitation amount of growing season of the recent 30 years), the deficient annual precipitation pattern (20% lower than the average value), and the plentiful annual precipitation pattern (20% higher than the average value). The pots were placed underneath a rainout shelter, and two plants of the same species were seeded per pot (sole species) or two plants of different species were seeded per pot (mixed species). We found that the plant height and total biomass of A. retroflexus and G. max under the average precipitation annual pattern were higher than those under deficient precipitation pattern, but lower than those under the plentiful precipitation pattern. The root to shoot ratios of the two plants at the early growing season were all the highest under the deficient precipitation pattern, indicating that both plants could adapt to the arid environment by increasing the root biomass allocation and decreasing the shoot biomass allocation. Under all the annual precipitation patterns, the plant height, relative growth rate and total biomass of mixture G. max were significantly less than solely planted G. max, while A. retroflexus showed the opposite trend. These results indicate that interspecific competition significantly inhibited the growth of G. max, but promoted the growth of A. retroflexus, suggesting asymmetric competition between the species. In general, the competitive ability of G. max increased with the increase in precipitation; whereas that of A. retroflexus increased with the decrease in precipitation. The results indicated that A. retroflexus could successfully invade G. max cropland under all three precipitation scenarios, and maintain a high plant height, relative growth rate, and biomass over a wide range of annual precipitation variation. These biological characters of A. retroflexus may allow it to become a successfully globally invasive weed, and drought may favor its invasion of G. max cropland.

【Keywords】 exotic weed; native crop; annual precipitation pattern; cultivation mode; growth;

【DOI】

【Funds】 National Natural Science Foundation of China (31770582) Heilongjiang Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (C2017018) Academic Key Project of Northeast Agricultural University (17XG08)

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    Footnote

    [1]. (1) Zhang X (2016) The effects of precipitation fluctuation and different cultivation models on the photosynthetic characteristics of Amaranthus retroflexus. Master’s dissertation, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin (in Chinese with English abstract). [^Back]

    [2]. (1) Zhang X (2016) The effects of precipitation fluctuation and different cultivation models on the photosynthetic characteristics of Amaranthus retroflexus. Master’s dissertation, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin (in Chinese with English abstract). [^Back]

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This Article

ISSN:1005-0094

CN: 11-3247/Q

Vol 26, No. 11, Pages 1158-1167

November 2018

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Materials and methods
  • 2 Results
  • 3 Discussion
  • Footnote

    References