Effects of different sediment type and burial depth on growth traits and biomass accumulation of Spartina anglica
(2.School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093)
(3.College of Environment and Resources, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China 010021)
【Abstract】Soils in salt marsh ecosystems have been undergoing certain changes including those related to sediment types and burial depths due to tidal activity and a variety of biotic factors. The changes in sediment type affect water-retaining properties, permeability and organic content while those in burial depth alter soil humidity, nutrition content, oxygen content, light intensity and temperature. Although many previous studies have focused on the effects of soil properties on plant growth and reproduction, few have explicitly tested the impacts of sediment type and burial depth on plants in salt marsh ecosystems. The exotic species Spartina anglica found in coastal China has been experiencing increased mortality over the past decades, however the mechanism of this mortality remains unclear. This study mainly focused on the effects of sediment type and burial depth on growth traits and biomass accumulation of S. anglica and was conducted under greenhouse conditions. The experiment included two types of sediments with clay and clay-sand mixtures (the volume of 1:1). Furthermore, four treatments were established with burial depths from 0 cm to one quarter of the plant height, one half of the plant height and three quarters of the plant height. Results indicated that clay increased leaf area, number of leaves, number of rhizomes, total length of rhizomes, rhizome biomass and aboveground biomass, while the clay-sand mixture led to an increase in number of ramets, total mass, underground biomass and root biomass. All the measures, except for leaf area, peaked at one half of the plant height burial treatment among all treatments. Overall, the burial depth at one half of the plant height in clay was the most suitable combination for S. anglica. The results indicate that changes in sediment properties and subsequent changes in burial depth for S. anglica may assist with management of its populations over the species range.
【Keywords】 salt marsh; Spartina anglica; population invasion and decline; biomass accumulation;
(Translated by CHEN T)
An SQ, Gu BH, Zhou CF, Wang ZS, Deng ZF, Zhi YB, Li HL, Chen L, Yu DH, Liu YH (2007) Spartina invasion in China: implications for invasive species management and future research. Weed Research, 47, 183–191.
Balke T, Klaassen PC, Garbutt A, Wal DVD, Herman PMJ, Bouma TJ (2012) Conditional outcome of ecosystem engineering: a case study on tussocks of the salt marsh pioneer Spartina anglica. Geomorphology, 153–154, 232–238.
Brown JF (1997) Effects of experimental burial on survival growth, and resource allocation of three species of dune plants. Journal of Ecology, 85, 151–158.
Chen JH, Wang L, Li YL, Zhang WQ, Fu XH, Le YQ (2012) Effect of Spartina alterniflora invasion and its controlling technologies on soil microbial respiration of a tidal wetland in Chongming Dongtan, China. Ecological Engineering, 4152–59.
Chung CH, Zhuo RZ, Xu GW (2004) Creation of Spartina plantations for reclaiming Dongtai, China, tidal flats and offshore sands. Ecological Engineering, 23, 135–150.
Crawford JT, Stone AG (2015) Relationships between soil composition and Spartina alterniflora die back in an Atlantic salt marsh. Wetlands, 35, 13–20.
Cutajar J, Shimeta J, Nugegoda D (2012) Impacts of the invasive grass Spartina anglica on benthic macrofaunal assemblages in a temperate Australian saltmarsh. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 464, 107–120.
Deng ZF, An SQ, Zhi YB, Zhou CF, Chen L, Zhao CJ, Fang SB, Li HL (2006) Preliminary studies on invasive model and outbreak mechanism of exotic species, Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 26, 2678–2686 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Deng ZF, An SQ, Zhao CJ, Chen L, Zhou CF, Zhi YB, Li HL (2008) Sediment burial stimulates the growth and propagule production of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 76, 818–826.
Ewing K (1996) Tolerance of four wetland plant species to flooding and sediment deposition. Environmental & Experimental Botany, 36, 131–146.
Gao XY, Dou XP, Zhu MC (2013) Research of hazard evaluation on sediment deposition downstream of the sluice in estuaries. The Ocean Engineering, 31 (5), 55–61 (in Chinese with English abstract).
He J, Zhao CJ, Qing H, Gan L, An SQ (2009) Effect of soil-water condition on morphological plasticity of clonal plant Spartina alterniflora. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29, 3518–3524 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Jarvis JC, Moore KA (2015) Effects of seed source, sediment type, and burial depth on mixed-annual and perennial Zostera marina L. seed germination and seedling establishment. Estuaries and Coasts, 38, 964–978.
Jiang M, LüXG, Yang Q (2006) Wetland soil and its system of environmental function assessment. Wetland Science, 4, 168–173 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Kent M, Owen NW, Dale P, Newnham RM, Giles TM (2001) Studies of vegetation burial: a focus for biogeography and biogeomorphology? Progress in Physical Geography, 25, 455–482.
Kim D, Caims DM, Bartholdy J (2013) Tidal creek morphology and sediment type influence spatial trends in salt marsh vegetation. The Professional Geographer, 65, 544–560.
Koch EW (2001) Beyond light: physical, geological, and geochemical parameters as possible submersed aquatic vegetation habitat requirements. Estuaries, 24, 1–17.
Li HL, Lei GC, Zhi YB, Perter B, Zhao L, Wang Y, Deng ZF, Liu YH, Liu FD, An SQ (2011) Phenotypic responses of Spartina anglica to duration of tidal immersion. Ecological Research, 26, 395–402
Li HL, Wang YY, An SQ, Zhi YB, Lei GC, Zhang MX (2014a) Sediment type affects competition between a native and an exotic species in coastal China. Scientific Reports, 4, 6748.
Li HL, An SQ, Zhi YB, Chao Y, Zhao L, Zhou CF, Deng ZF, Su W, Liu YH (2008) Protogynous, pollen limitation and low seed production reasoned for the dieback of Spartina anglica in coastal China. Plant Science, 174, 299–309.
Li HL, Zhi YB, An SQ, Zhao L, Zhou CF, Deng ZF, Gu SP (2009) Density-dependent effects on the dieback of exotic species Spartina anglica in coastal China. Ecological Engineering, 35, 544–552.
Li HL, Zhi YB, Lei GC, Zhao L, An SQ, Deng ZF (2010) Physiological responses of clonal plant Spartina anglica to simulated tidal waterlogging time. Wetland Science, 8, 125–131 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li HL, Zhi YB, Zhao L, An SQ, Deng ZF, Zhou CF, Gu SP (2007) Eco-physiological responses of the declining population Spartina anglica to N and P fertilizer addition. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 27, 2725–2732 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li QY, Zhao WZ (2006) Seedling emergence and growth responses of five desert species to sand burial depth. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 26, 1802–1808 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li XP, Tang GG, Wang DS, Xu HQ (1998) Studies on the community characteristics, the distribution and succession patterns of wetland vegetation in Jiangsu Province. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University (Natural Sciences), 22, 47–52 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li ZJ, Wang WQ, Zhang YH (2014b) Recruitment and herbivory affect spread of invasive Spartina alterniflora in China. Ecology, 95, 1972–1980.
Mariska TB, Nicola S, Han O, Wim HP (2009) Plant-soil feedback induces shifts in biomass allocation in the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata. Journal of Ecology, 97, 1281–1290.
Maun MA (2011) Adaptations of plants to burial in coastal sand dunes. Canadian Journal of Botany, 76, 713–738.
Min FY, Wang YP (2008) Study on the sediment siltation downstream tidal barriers in the north of Jiangsu Province. Marine Science, 32 (12), 87–91 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Nehring S, Hesse K (2008) Invasive alien plants in marine protected areas: the Spartina anglica affair in the European Wadden Sea. Biological Invasions, 10, 937–950.
Nie HL, Wu N, Liang SM, Wang HL, Zhang YM (2006) Effects of different sand burial depths on the growth of fragments of Tortula desertorum. Arid Zone Research, 23 (1), 66–70 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Nielsen LK, Vermaat JE, Wesseling I, Borum J, Hansen O (2002) Sediment properties along gradients of siltation in South-East Asia. Estuarine Coastaland & Shelf Science, 54, 127–137.
Owen NW, Martin K, Pamela DM (2004) Plant species and community responses to sand burial on the machair of the Outer Hebrides, Scotland. Journal of Vegetation Science, 15, 669–678.
Perumal VJ, Maun MA (2006) Ecophysiological response of dune species to experimental burial under field and controlled conditions. Vegetatio, 184, 89–104.
Pezeshki SR, Delaune RD, Pardue JH (1992) Sediment addition enhances transpiration and growth of Spartina alterniflora in deteriorating Louisiana Gulf Coast salt marshes. Wetlands Ecology & Management, 1, 185–189.
Pye K (1995) Controls on long-term saltmarsh accretion and erosion in the Wash, eastern England. Journal of Coastal Research, 11, 337–356.
Ren ME (1986) The integrative investigation reports of coastal line and tideland resources in Jiangsu Province, China. Marine Press, Beijing (in Chinese).
Sánchez JM, Sanleon DG, Izco J (2001) Primary colonisation of mudflat estuaries by Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald in Northwest Spain: vegetation structure and sediment accretion. Aquatic Botany, 69, 15–25.
Sciegienka JK, Keren EN, Menalled FD (2011) Impact of root fragment dimension, weight, burial depth, and water regime on Cirsium arvense emergence and growth. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 91, 1027–1036.
Shen YM, Zeng H, Wang H, Liu YM, Chen ZY (2005) Characteristics of halophyte and associated soil along aggradational muddy coasts in Jiangsu Province. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 25, 1–6 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Sun ZG, Song HL, Sun WG, Sun J (2014) Effects of continual burial by sediment on morphological traits and dry mass allocation of Suaeda salsa seedlings in the Yellow River estuary: an experimental study. Ecological Engineering, 68, 176–183.
Tian YB, Song GY, Ai TC (2002) Wetland soil and its ecological functions. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 21 (6), 36–39 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Walls RL, Wardrop DH, Brooks RP (2005) The impact of experimental sedimentation and flooding on the growth and germination of floodplain trees. Plant Ecology, 176, 203–213.
Wang Q, An SQ, Ma ZJ, Zhao B, Chen JK, Li B (2006) Invasive Spartina alterniflora: biology, ecology and management. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 44, 559–588 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Willis JM, Hester MW (2004) Interactive effects of salinity, flooding, and sediment type on Panicum hemitomon. Wetlands, 24, 43–50.
Yang D, Wan FX (2014) Research progress on invasive alien species Spartina alterniflora. Plant Protection, 40 (2), 5–10 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Yu GH, Bao SD (1992) Experimental study of erosion prevention and siltation acceleration on Lüsi beach. The Ocean Engineering, 1 (1), 65–74 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhang XL, Shi SL, Pan GX, Li LQ, Zhang XH, Li ZP (2008) Changes in eco-chemical properties of a mangrove wetland under Spartina invasion from Zhangjiangkou, Fujian, China. Advances in Earth Science, 23, 974–981 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhang YL, Chen LJ (2010) Evolvement of soil properties during reversal of desertification: research progress. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 29, 1440–1450 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhi YB, Li HL, An SQ, Zhao L, Zhou CF, Deng ZF (2007) Inter-specific competition: Spartina alterniflora is replacing Spartina anglica in coastal China. Estuarine CoastalandShelf Science, 74, 437–448.
Zhong CX (1985) A brief history and overseas review of Spartina anglica. Journal of Nanjing University—Album of Spartina Research Progress, 1–30 (in Chinese).