Flora compositions and spatial differentiations of vegetation in dry valleys of Southwest China

Ye Liu1 Xinxin Zhu2 Zehao Shen3 Hang Sun4

(1.School of Urban Planning and Design, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055)
(2.College of Life Science, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang, Henan 464000)
(3.Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, the Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871)
(4.Key Laboratory of Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204)

【Abstract】Based on plant community data collected from dry valleys of nine major rivers in Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of Southwest China, we divided the families and genera of the vascular plants into geographic elements of Chinese flora, and analyzed the spatial patterns. We found the flora of dry valleys of Southwest China revealed a complex composition of geographic elements with wide floristic connections, including 11 family area-types and 15 genera area-types. The ratio of tropical versus temperate floristic elements was 3.06 at the family level, and 1.77 at the genus level, showing a distinctive affinity for tropical floras, and later imprints of temperate floras. A clear floristic linkage existed between the dry valley floras and the Mediterranean, Western- and Central-Asian floras. The percentages of East Asian elements and endemic Chinese elements were below the average value in the flora found for the subtropical region in China. The Sino-Himalayan element had a value higher than that for the Sino-Japan element in the dry valley floras. The floristic affinity to the tropics weakened while affinity to temperate flora intensified moving in the region from the southwest to northeast. Linkages with the Mediterranean-Central Asian floras, and also the percentage of East Asian elements and endemic Chinese elements increased in the same direction. A boundary between the Sino-Japan type and Sino-Himalayan type was detected between the dry valley floras of Nanpanjiang River and Yuanjiang River. With respect to the genus level floristic composition of geographic elements, Nujiang River, Lancangjiang River and Yuanjiang River were separated from the other rivers, which are all upper branches of the Yangtze River. This departure indicated the impacts of the evolution of the Yangtze River, which were characterized by headward erosion, river confluences, on the characteristics of modern flora in dry valleys.

【Keywords】 dry valleys of Southwest China; vascular plants; floristic elements; similarity; spatial differentiation;

【DOI】

【Funds】 National Natural Science Foundation of China (41371190) Western Project of Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China (2008 318 799 17)

Download this article

    Footnote

    [1]. (1)Chen Weijuan (2006) The geographical study of thesubtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest flora. East China Normal University Master's Dissertation, Shanghai.

    References

    Bao WK,Wang CM(2000)Degradation mechanism of mountain ecosystem at the dry valley in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River. Journal of Mountain Science, 18, 57–62 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Barbour GB(1936)Physiographic history of the Yangtze. Geographical Journal, 87, 17–32.

    Cao YH, Jin ZZ(1993)A research on the flora of Nujiang dry-hot valley in Lujiangba, Yunnan. Guihaia, 15, 132–138 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Clark MK, Schoenbohm LM, Royden LH, Whipple KX, Burchfiel BC, Zhang X, Tang W, Wang E, Chen L(2004)Surface uplift, tectonics, and erosion of eastern Tibet from large-scale drainage patterns. Tectonics, 23, 1006.

    Cui ZJ, Wu YQ, Liu GN, Ge DK, Pang QQ, Xu QH(1998)About "Kunlun-Yellow River" tectonic movement. Science in China, 28, 53–59 (in Chinese).

    Editorial Committee of Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae (1959–2004) Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).

    Jin ZZ(1998)Study on the floristic elements of seed plants in the dry-warm valleys of Yunnan and Sichuan. Guihaia, 18, 313–321 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Jin ZZ(1999)Study on the floristic elements of seed plants in the dry-hot valleys of Yunnan and Sichuan. Guihaia, 19, 1–14 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Jin ZZ(2002)Floristic Features of Dry-hot and Dry-warm Valleys, Yunnan and Sichuan. Yunnan Science&Technology Press, Kunming (in Chinese).

    Jin ZZ, Ou XK(2000)Yuanjiang, Nujiang, Jinshajiang, Lancangjiang Vegetation of Dry-Hot Valley. Yunnan University Press, Yunnan Science&Technology Press, Kunming (in Chinese).

    Jin ZZ, Yang YP, Tao GD(1995)The floristic characteristics, nature and origin of seed plants in the dry-hot valley of Southwest China. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 17, 129–143 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Li XW, Li J(1992)On the validity of Tanaka Line and its significance viewed from the distribution of eastern Asiatic genera in Yunnan. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 14, 1–12 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Li XW, Li J(1997)The Tanaka-Kaiyong line: an important floristic line for the study of the flora of East Asia. Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden, 84, 888–892.

    Liu LH(1989)Vegetational types of the arid valleys in the Hengduan Mountains region. Mountain Research, 7, 175–182 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Liu Y(2015)Plant Diversity and Phytogeography of Arid Valley in Major Rivers of the Southwestern China. Ph D dissertation, Peking University, Beijing (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Liu Y, Li P, Xu Y, Shi SL, Ying LX, Zhang WJ, Peng PH, Shen ZH(2016)Quantitative classification and ordination for plant communities in dry valleys of Southwest China. Biodiversity Science, 24, 378–388 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Ming QZ(2006)The Landform Development and Environment Effects in the Area of Three Parallel Rivers, Northern Longitudinal Range-gorge Region. PhD dissertation, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Ou XK, Zhang ZM, Wang CY, Wu YC(2006)Meri Snow Mountain Vegetation Research. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).

    Peng H, Wu ZY(1997)On the floristic relationships and position of seed plants in Mt. Wuliangshan. Mountain Research, 15(3), 1–6 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Qiu ZQ, Yang YH, Cao XW, Sun PJ, Sun XG(2007)Species diversity and floristic characteristics of woody plants in the dry valley of the Bailong River, China. Journal of Gansu Agricultural University, 42(5), 119–125 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Ren ME, Bao HS, Han TC, Wang FY, Huang PH(1959)The landform and river capture in Jinshajiang valley in northwest Yunnan. Acta Geographica Sinica, 25, 135–155 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Shen ZH, Liu ZL, Wu J(2004)Altitudinal pattern of flora on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga. Biodiversity Science, 12, 89–98 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Shen ZH, Zhang XS(2000)A quantitative analysis on the floristic elements of the Chinese subtropical region and their spatial patterns. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 38, 366–380 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Song YC(2001)Vegetation Ecology. East China Normal University Press, Shanghai (in Chinese).

    Su ZY(1999)Quantification of floristic endemism. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 20, 92–96 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Sun H, Li ZM(2003)Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and its impact on Tethys flora. Advance in Earth Sciences, 18, 852–862 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Tanaka T(1954)Species Problem in Citrus, pp. 58–69. Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo.

    Vetaas OR, Grytnes JA(2002)Distribution of vascular plant species richness and endemic richness along the Himalayan elevation gradient in Nepal. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11, 291–301.

    Wang HS(1997)Floristic Geography of North China. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).

    Wu J, Yin XM, Liu ZF, Ruan JY(2012)Research on seed plant flora in Gongga Mountain Nature Reserve. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology, 33, 46–49 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Wu ZY, Chen XQ(2004)Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae, Vol. 1. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).

    Wu ZY, Wang HS(1983)Phytogeography of China. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).

    Wu ZY, Sun H, Zhou ZK, Li DZ, Peng H(2011)Floristics of Seed Plants from China. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).

    Yang DY, Han ZY, Ge ZS, Xu QM, Chen KF, Xu YH, Li LP, Huang D, Lu HY(2008)Geomorphic process of the formation and incision of the section from Shigu to Yibin of the Jinshajiang River. Quaternary Sciences, 28, 564–568 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Yang QY, Zheng D(1989)An outline of physic-geographic regionalization of the Hengduan mountainous region. Mountain Research, 7, 56–64 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Ying JS, Chen ML(2011)Chinese Plant Geography. Shanghai Science&Technology Press, Shanghai (in Chinese).

    Ying JS, Zhang ZS(1985)Endemism in the flora of China:studies on the endemic genera. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica, 22, 259–268 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Zhang RZ(1992)The Dry Valleys of the Hengduan Mountains Region. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).

    Zhang TC(2010)Phylogeography and Phylogeny of Terminalia franchetii and Its Correlation with Honghe Diversion Events. PhD dissertation, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Zhang TC, Comes HP, Sun H(2011)Chloroplast phylogeography of Terminalia franchetii (Combretaceae) from the eastern Sino-Himalayan region and its correlation with historical river capture events. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 60, 1–12.

    Zhu H(1990)A study on the thorny succulent shrubs in dry-hot valley of Yuanjiang County. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 12, 301–310 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Zhu H, Yan LC(2003)Notes on the realities and significances of the "Tanaka Line" and the "Ecogeographical Diagonal Line "in Yunnan. Advance in Earth Sciences, 18, 870–876 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Zhu XX(2014)The Flora of Seed Plants in Three Rivers Valley of SW China. PhD dissertation, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (in Chinese with English abstract).

This Article

ISSN:1000-1719

CN:21-1128/R

Vol 43, No. 12, Pages 2603-2607

December 2016

Downloads:6

Share
Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Materials and methods
  • 2 Results
  • 3 Discussions
  • Footnote

    References