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性爱、家庭与民族:潘光旦新家制的内在理路

杭苏红1

(1.中国社会科学院社会学研究所)

【摘要】潘光旦对家庭研究的重视, 既是为了回应民国家庭变革所带来的离婚增多、家内关系紧张等诸多家庭问题, 更是为了以自然性与伦理性的平衡为基础, 重建在个体与社会之间起中介作用的新家制。一方面, 通过探讨两性关系中自然性冲动与社会性情感的共存关系, 以及在处理家内关系时综合考量家庭成员之间自然性差异与德行、才智差异, 潘光旦论证了维持自然性与伦理性的平衡, 是克服家庭变革中激进或保守倾向、进而促进两性关系与家内关系和谐的重要原则。另一方面, 在此基础上, 潘光旦进一步论证了现代个体在维持家庭稳定的同时走出家庭, 将家内培养的同情心与责任心扩展到社会、民族的可能性。这一思想是坚持从改革家制出发, 而非从其他替代性团体入手, 推动个体发展与民族进步的一种尝试。

【关键词】 潘光旦;性爱;家内关系;折中家制;民族;

【DOI】

Love, family and nation: Pan Guangdan’s theory of the new family system

HANG Suhong1

(1.Institute of Sociology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)

【Abstract】Pan Guangdan’s emphasis on family research not only responds to the increase in divorce caused by family changes in the Republic of China, but also reconstructs a new family system between the individual and society based on new natural and ethical principles. On the one hand, by discussing the coexistent relationship between natural impulses and social emotions in gender relations, and considering the natural differences and moral differences between family members, Pan Guangdan argues that to maintain balance between nature and ethics is to overcome the radical or conservative tendencies in family reform, and thus to maintain the stability of gender relations and family relations. On the other hand, Pan Guangdan further demonstrates the possibility of modern individuals going out of the family, bringing the compassion and responsibility cultivated in the family to the society and nation while maintaining the stability of family. This idea attempts to promote development of individuals and nation by reforming the family system in the Republic of China, instead of choosing other alternative groups.

【Keywords】 Pan Guangdan; love; family relationship; optimum family; nation;

【DOI】

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    Footnote

    [1]. ① Later in another article, Pan abandoned the comparison of significance between these two elements. He thought that the extent of significance was difficult to be differentiated, and what could be compared was two elements’ tendency of being stable and changing (Pan, 2000j: 40). [^Back]

    [2]. ① In the criticism of the traditional family system during the period of the Republic of China, Wu Yu, Chen Duxiu, Shi Cuntong and others’ criticism of the traditional family system and filial piety during the New Culture Movement is often mentioned. [^Back]

    [3]. ② For instance, Kang quoted the divorce rate of Paris in 1891 to demonstrate that gender relations in small family system was easy to collapse (Kang, 2007: 282–283) in Shili Gongfa Quanshu (实理公法全书, complete book of true principles and public laws. In The Book of Great Unity, he illustrated that children did not support their parents in the Western small family system (Kang, 1994: 206–210). [^Back]

    [4]. ③ With the spread of the ideological trend of anarchism, the idea of “no family” gained certain recognition in intellectual communities. For example, when asked about whether or not to have a family in the future by Hu Hanmin, the president of the Legislative Yuan, Cai Yuanpei, Li Shizeng, Jiang Menglin and others held a negative attitude towards the future family, saying that it was better not to have a family and family restricted personal life (The News, 1930). [^Back]

    [5]. ① The eugenics in Pan’s theory is his selective absorption of Western eugenics, advocating that individuals achieve the optimal combination of human genetic traits through marriage selection and offspring generation to improve racial quality. It is obviously different from general eugenics and racism (Lyu, 2009: 50–51). During the time when Pan lived, with the spread of social Darwinism, eugenics, as a new subject, once had a certain influence on European and American intellectual communities and received the attention and support of Russell, Schiller, Ellis and others (Hawkins, 1997: 218–219; Hofstadter, 1981: 181). Under the influence of this academic trend, Pan not only studied biology and eugenics in the United States, but also published a large number of books and articles, such as Yousheng Gailun (优生概论, an overview of eugenics) and Yousheng Yuanli (优生原理, principles of eugenics), and Yousheng Yu Kangzhan (优生与抗战, eugenics and the Chinese People’s war of resistance against Japanese Aggression) after returning to China. Pan’s theory of eugenics has been criticized (Sun, 2012a, 2012b; Zhou, 2000). However, from the perspective of studying Pan’s theory, while seeing the limitations of his theory of eugenics, we should also try to explore the theoretical ambition behind his eugenic theory to connect individuals and families with larger nation and state so as to fulfill the development of people and his great efforts of attempting to practice “human cultivation.” As a matter of fact, the practical issues aimed at by these theoretical conceptions during that time also exist to a certain extent in contemporary society, such as the lack of a sense of individual belonging and “the lack of human beings” in the modern construction plan. [^Back]

    [6]. ② The concept of race, often used by Pan, is based on biology, referring to “germplasm” or “pedigree” (Lyu, 2009: 114). He believed that the academic circles at that time had few discussions on the biological basis of nation, and therefore he should place special emphasis on the pedigree of ethnicity in terms of the intergenerational succession. This is very different from racism, and Pan also criticized the racial difference and racial exclusion in his articles (Pan, 2000r: 367). [^Back]

    [7]. ① The original text is “Until the currents of lust in the organism have been so irradiated as to affect other parts of the psychic organism—at the least the affections and the social feelings—it is not yet sexual love.” For translated text, please refer to Pan Guangdan’s (2000i; 373) translation with changes. [^Back]

    [8]. ① See Lyu’s discussion (Lyu 2009: 184–187) on the issue of providing support for the aged, especially emotional support. [^Back]

    [9]. ① For example, Shi Cuntong, an anti-feudal activist during the period of the Republic of China, called on young people to rebel against parents without virtues in his article Feixiao (非孝, Non-filial Piety). For details, please refer to his memoir published in the name of Shi Fuliang (施复亮) (Shi, 1948). [^Back]

    [10]. ① It is worth noting that Pan’s views have changed between early and late periods. In the book Chinese Family Problems and the English article all published in 1928, although he recognized that the parents should be supported by their children as they were old (Pan, 2000l: 133). However, regarding supporting parents through cohabitation, he emphasized that the caretakers were married brothers after separation. However, in the article titled Tan Hunyin De Dongji (谈婚姻的动机, on the motivation of marriage) published in 1937, he pointed out that parents not only lived with their married children, but also had the right to be supported by them and their spouses (Pan, 2000g: 480). In a book review published in 1947, although he did not have such a clear statement, he also said in general that the younger generation should take turns taking care of their parents (Pan, 2000m: 83). This shows that Pan regarded patrilineal inheritance as an unshakable element of family system in the 1920s. But in the 1930s, in the future family system conceptualized by Pan, the daughter and son-in-law joined the new family system because of the responsibility of cohabiting with and supporting parents, the optimum family system was no longer just a patrilineal inheritance between men and became more inclusive. [^Back]

    [11]. ① Taking the home village as an example, Pan believed that the emotional attachment to the home village had a close relationship with the familial emotion, and it was deeply rooted in Chinese culture. He advocated strengthening this emotion through education so as to attract talents to return to the countryside and accomplish their emotional goal and responsibility towards the countryside (Pan, 2000f: 143). [^Back]

    [12]. ① Although Pan attached great importance to the reform of ancestral halls so as to make it conducive to cultivating ethnic consciousness, he was also clearly aware that the dissolution of the ancestral hall system was inevitable (Pan, 2000l: 139). [^Back]

    [13]. ① The research of eugenics on the correlation between good qualities and social status as well as occupation has been criticized by many scholars. For example, Sun pointed out that eugenics had a tendency to value wealth, status and power, and ignore the poor, the powerless and people with very limited social status (Sun, 2012a, 2012b), and Zhou also had similar criticism (Zhou, 2000). However, it seems to be difficult to find this tendency when examining Pan’s discussion of eugenics. Although he acknowledged that for evaluating a person’s qualities, social status, economic ability and education level were relatively indirect ways which was referred to for no choice, he clearly pointed out there were many exceptional ones having good qualities, coming from lower class, incapable of making a living or unable to receive higher education (Pan, 2000k: 296). That is, people with good qualities scatter among all social classes, and what matters is not their status and wealth, but their potential good qualities. [^Back]

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This Article

ISSN:1002-5936

CN: 11-1100/C

Vol 33, No. 01, Pages 194-216+246

January 2018

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Perception of “yu-lian”: love as the basis of the family system
  • 3 Weiyu and family relationship
  • 4 Love expansion: family system reform and national development
  • 5 Conclusion
  • Footnote

    References