【摘要】在农业产业化的推进过程中, 一些处于相同宏观制度环境的地区, 虽具有相似的自然资源禀赋且采取同样的产业组织形式, 却在发展结果上大相径庭。市场体制视角关注政府与其他市场行动者联结的关系模式及其影响, 强调其多样性特征, 有助于揭示上述现象形成的原因和社会机制。基于此视角对汀市与汉市小龙虾产业的比较分析表明, 政府产业发展战略与会意机制的相互配合导致了同一产业领域市场体制的地方差异。不同的市场体制则通过建构出明显不同的产业组织过程、市场结构、政策利用机会和创新能力强有力地塑造了地方产业的竞争力, 从而固化并拉大了产业发展的地区间差异。产业发展中市场体制的效用发挥具有若干前提条件, 在研究和实践中都应对此予以重视。
【基金资助】 全国优秀博士学位论文作者专项项目 (201306) ; 华中师范大学中央高校基本科研业务费项目 (CCNU17Z02004) 的阶段性成果;
Market regime and industrial advantages:* sociological study of the regional differences in agricultural industrialization
【Abstract】In the advancement process of agricultural industrialization, in spite that some areas in the same macro institutional environment are provided with similar natural resource endowments and the same industrial organization form adopted, they show totally different development outcomes. It helps to reveal the causes and social mechanisms revealing the phenomena above by focusing on the relationship model and its influence between the government and other market actors from the perspective of market regime, and by emphasizing its diverse characteristics. Based on the view above, the results of the comparative analysis that was performed between the crayfish industries in Ting City and Han City showed that the government’s industrial development strategy is interacted with its “understanding” mechanism, resulting in local differences in the market regime of the same industry. Different market regimes can strongly shape the competitiveness of local industries by constructing distinctly different industrial organization processes, market structures, policy opportunities utilized, and innovation capabilities. Thus, it solidifies and widens regional differences in the industrial development. The effectiveness of the market regime in the industrial development has several preconditions, and should all be paid attention to in research and practice.
【Keywords】 agricultural industrialization; market regime; industrial advantage; local government;
【Funds】 the phased achievement of Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation (201306); the phased achievement of the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Central China Normal University (CCNU17Z02004);
. This paper is the phased achievement of Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation (201306) and t the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Central China Normal University (CCNU17Z02004). The first draft of this paper was presented at the Lilin Forum (2016) (Beijing), China Youth Social Scholars Alliance Forum (Wuhan) and Academic Seminar (Wujiang) for Commemoration of the 80th Anniversary of Prof. Fei Xiaotong’s Jiangcun Survey. Liu Shiding, Wang Hejian, Feng Shizheng, Lyu Peng, Zhang Xiang, Liu Chengbin, You Yiwen, Liu Zixi and other teachers and friends gave helpful comments and suggestions, and anonymous reviewers also put forward valuable opinions. Many thanks. [^Back]
. ① The land area of Ting City is only one seventh of that of Han City, so the breeding area and production of the former are much lower than the latter. The processing and sales of crayfish are highly dependent on aquaculture because post-harvest adult prawns are not easy to keep fresh and alive. It is very important for the circulation and transportation radius ranging from the breeding site to the processing site: the longer the transportation time, the higher the death rate and the lower the value. In this regard, Han City has a good foundation for the development of crayfish processing. [^Back]
. ② The number of processing enterprises and their processing capacity in Ting City have far exceeded that of Han City, and a large number of crayfishes cultured in Han City are acquired every year. Although it is impossible to verify what proportion of crayfishes processed in Ting City comes from Han City, the chairman of a company in Han City said: “I went to Ting City three years ago to calculate the quantity of crayfishes processed there, and approximately 70 % came from (were provided by) our Han City” (201602-CSN). [^Back]
. ① For example, many national and international academic seminars for crayfishes have been held in Hubei Province in recent years, and the annual crayfish culture festival in Ting City since its first launch in 2009; Ting City Crayfish Vocational College is the first vocational school serving crayfish industry in China, and Hubei Province Crayfish Industrial Technology Research Institute is also settled in the local area; the Technical Regulations of Ting City Crayfish “Crayfish and Rice Cropping” which was summarized and refined by local technicians was published and implemented as the national industry standard; the National Ministry of Agriculture praised the crayfish and rice cropping model as a successful example of modern agricultural development and actively promoted it to more than 20 provinces and cities. More importantly, Ting City controls the discourse power in crayfish market pricing: the purchase price of local enterprises influences the trading price of crayfish market in Jianghan Plain, and the price of products released in domestic and international markets directly determines the price of the sales market. [^Back]
. ① Some studies have revealed that the adjustment of agricultural structure in some areas has fallen into the repeated inefficiency circle of new industry-inefficient operation-new industry (Liu et al., 2017). To a certain extent, it belongs to another form of expression of the results chosen by such a behavior. [^Back]
. ① The processed product of crayfish is export-oriented product, so that the analysis on export processing can reflect the scale and strength of enterprises in processing to a greater extent. [^Back]
. ① For example, a leading company in Ting City, has received many special project support from the central government in recent years, including the national project for enriching people and strengthening county of “High-efficiency Breeding and Deep Processing Technology Integration and Industrialization Demonstration of Crayfish in Ting City”, the China Spark Program, namely, Promotion and Demonstration of Procambarus Clarkia Quality Seedling and Breeding Technology, the special project of international scientific and technological cooperation of Joint Technology Development of Procambarus Clarkia Original Breeding, and the Industrial Transformation Project of National Resource-depleted Cities. [^Back]
. ① This can be one of the important reasons why the crayfish industry in Hubei Province can surpass that in Jiangsu Province later. In the interview, the chairmen, general managers and government officials of many processing enterprises believed that the decline of the Jiangsu crayfish industry since the beginning of the 21st century is mainly caused by the degradation of the germplasm resources of crayfish, but Jiangsu Province has not solved it well, resulting in significant reduction in aquaculture production and further affecting its processing. For example, chitin product processing industry in Jiangsu Province developed earlier than Hubei Province, but it was only short-lived due to the serious shortage of raw crayfish shells, and the decreased number of processing enterprises and volume. [^Back]
. ① Some local governments have simply supported the specific industries that have no basic conditions in terms of taxation, land, and credit, leading to common cases of failure. When the phenomena of overcapacity, redundant construction, market failure, and “zombie enterprises” are frequently reported by the media, people tend to understand the results that are generated by the government support to be in deviation from its behavior and policy objective. This paper has implications in policy that the government’s industrial policy should focus on industrial innovation behavior that may bring long-term benefits and further, to create a good environment for the supply-side structural reform of agriculture, and provide incentives to compensate for market failure. [^Back]
Alston, J. L., in Alston, J. L., Eggertsson, T. & North, D. (eds.), Empirical Studies in Institutional Change (Second Edition). Luo, Z. (trans.) Beijing: Economic Science Press, (2003).
Porter, M. On Competition. Gao, D. & Li, M. (trans.) Beijing: CITIC Publishing House, (2012).
Cheng, Z. 农业产业化发展与农地流转制度创新的研究. Beijing: The Commercial Press, (2012).
Feng, S. Academia Bimestris (学海), (3) (2003).
Fu, P. Sociological Studies (社会学研究), (5) (2009).
Fu, P. 市场的社会逻辑. Shanghai: Shanghai Sanlian Bookstore, (2013).
Haggard, S. Pathways From the Periphery: the Politics of Growth in the Newly Industrializing Countries. Chen, H. (trans.) Changchun: Jilin Publishing Group, (2009).
Hubei Provincial Department of Finance. 湖北省县域经济发展调度资金管理暂行办法. ( No. 10 finance-related document towards enterprises of Hubei Province).
Li, H. & Wei, Q. 嵌入过程中的主体与结构—对政企关系变迁的社会分析. Beijing: China Social Sciences Press, (2014).
Lin, Y. China Economic Quarterly (经济学（季刊）), (4) (2003). Lin, Y. New Structural Economics: A Framework for Rethinking Development and Policy (新结构经济学：反思经济发展与政策的理论框架). Beijing: Peking University Press, (2012).
Liu J., Lu, Y. & Li, Z. Sociological Studies (社会学研究), (5) (2007).
Liu, Z. Management World (管理世界), (3) (2007).
Lyu, P. Academia Bimestris (学海), (6) (2015).
Nicholson, N., in Ostrom, V., Feeny, D. & Picht, H. (eds.), Rethinking Institutional Analysis and Development: Issues, Alternatives, and Choices. Wang, C. et al. (trans.) Beijing: The Commercial Press, (1992).
Nie, H. China Economic Quarterly (经济学（季刊）), (1) (2013).
Qu, J Social Sciences in China (中国社会科学), (5) (2012).
Shi, P. Sociological Studies (社会学研究), (2) (2016).
Wang, H. The Logic of Self-action the Contemporary Chinese Market Practices (自我行动的逻辑:当代中国人的市场实践). Beijing: Peking University Press, (2013).
Wei, H. 市场竞争、经济绩效与产业集中. Beijing: Economy & Management Publishing House, (2003).
Yang, D. Journal of China National School of Administration (国家行政学院学报), (2) (2017).
Yang, S. & Su, H. Sociological Studies (社会学研究), (1) (2002).
Johnson, C. MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925–1975. Jin, Y., Xu, H. & Tang, J. (trans.) Changchun: Jilin Publishing Group, (2010).
Zhang, L., Lin, S. & Huo, J. Management World (管理世界), (3) (2011).
Zhang, Q. & Liu, M. 权力结构、政治激励和经济增长. Shanghai: Truth & Wisdom Press, (2016).
CPC Hubei Provincial Party Committee & Hubei Provincial People’s Government. 中共湖北省委湖北省人民政府关于实施农产品加工业“四个一批”工程的意见. ( No. 27 Document issued by Hubei Province).
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China & the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. 关于做好二○○○年农业和农村工作的意见. ( No. 3 Document issued by General Office of the Communist Party of China).
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China & the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. 中共中央国务院关于进一步加强农村工作提高农业综合生产能力若干政策的意见. ( No. 1 Document issued by General Office of the Communist Party of China).
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China & the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. 中共中央国务院关于积极发展现代农业扎实推进社会主义新农村建设的若干意见. ( No. 1 Document issued by General Office of the Communist Party of China).
Amable, B. 2003, The Diversity of Modern Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Boulding, W. & A. Kirmani 2003, “Sustainable Pioneering Advantage? Profit Implications of Market Entry Order.” Marketing Science 22(4).
Bramall, C. 2007, The Industrialization of Rural China. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Burawoy, M. 2001, “Neoclassical Sociology: From The End of Communism to The End of Class.” American Journal of Sociology 106 (4).
Campbell, J. 2004, Institutional Change and Globalization. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Deeg, R. 2009, “The Rise of Internal Capitalist Diversity? Changing Patterns of Finance and Corporate Governance in Europe.” Economy and Society 38 (4).
Eyal, G., I. Szelenyi & E. Townsley 1998, Making Capitalism without Capitalists. New York: Verso.
Gao, Bai 2016, “Introduction: The Social Construction of Competitive Advantage,” China: An International Journal 14 (1).
Hall, Peter A. & D. Soskice (eds.) 2001, Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hedström, P. 2005, Dissecting the Social: On The Principles of Analytical Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hedström, P. & R. Swedberg 1998, “Social Mechanisms: An Introductory Essay.” In P. Hedstrom & R. Swedberg (eds.), Social Mechanisms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lane, C. & G. Wood 2009, “Capitalist Diversity and Diversity within Capitalism,” Economy and Society 38 (4).
Lieberman, M. B. & D. B. Montgomery 1988, “First-Mover Advantages Strategic.” Management Journal, 9.
Lieberman, M. B. & D. B. Montgomery 1988, “First-Mover (Dis) Advantages: Retrospective and Link with the Resource-Based View.” Strategic Management Journal 19 (12).
Makadok, R. 1998, “Can First-Mover and Early-Mover Advantages be Sustained in an Industry with Low Barriers to Entry/Imitation?” Strategic Management Journal 19 (7).
Mascarenhas, R. C. 2002, A Comparative Political Economy of Industrial Capitalism. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Nee, V. & S. Opper 2012, Capitalism from Below: Markets and Institutional Change in China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Oi, Jean C. 1999, Rural China Takes Off: Institutional Foundations of Economic Reform. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Stan, M. & F. Vermeulen 2013, “Selection at the Gate: Difficult Cases, Spillovers, and Organizational Learning.” Organization Science 24 (3).
Stark, D. & L. Brusz 1998, Postsocialist Pathways: Transforming Politics and Property in East Central Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Streeck, W. & K. Yamamura (eds.) 2001, The Origins of Nonliberal Capitalism: Germany and Japan in Comparison. Ithaca: Cornell University.
Stubbs, R. 2011, “The East Asian Developmental State and The Great Recession: Evolving Contesting Coalitions,” Contemporary Politics 17 (2).
Tsai, K. S. & B. Naughton 2015. “Introduction: State Capitalism and the Chinese Economic Miracle.” In B. Naughton & K. S. Tsai (eds.), State Capitalism, Institutional Adaptation, and the Chinese Miracle. New York: Cambridge University Press.