Changes of the independence in daily living at both the population and the individual levels among the older population in China

LI Qiang1 ZHANG Zhen2

(1.The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies and School of Social Development, East China Normal University)
(2.Institute of Population Research of School of Social Development and Public Policy, Fudan University.)

【Abstract】Based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study (CLHLS2002–2011), this study assesses the age trajectories of the loss of independence in daily living for five cohorts aged 65–69, 70–79, 80–89, 90–99 and 100+ at the 2002 survey, respectively, both at the individual and the overall level. Results show that the decline of independence at the overall level is more gradual than that at the individual level. A decomposition analysis further reveals that the difference in the pace of decline of independence can be largely attributed to selective mortality and loss to follow up. Moreover, such difference varies across cohorts. For the population as a whole, a longer life expectancy does not necessarily result in a rapid decline of independence. For individuals, however, prolonging lifespan tend to be accompanied with deterioration of independence except for the young old.

【Keywords】 the elderly; independence in daily living; selective mortality; overall change; individual change;

【DOI】

【Funds】 National Natural Science Foundation of China (71503082, 71473044) Shanghai Fund for Philosophy and Social Science Studies (2013BSH003)

Download this article

    References

    1 Hu, Z. & Peng, X. Sociological Studies (社会学研究), (3): 151–152 (2014).

    2 Li, T. & Zhang, Y. Population Research (人口研究), (2): 32–33 (2014).

    3 Zhang, L. & Zhang, Y. Chinese Journal of Population Science (中国人口科学), (6): 94–95 (2017).

    4 Zeng, Y. & Wang, Z. Chinese Journal of Population Science (中国人口科学), (5): 6–8 (2004).

    5 Baltes P. B. and Smith J.. 2003. New Frontiers in the Future of aging: From Successful Aging of the Young Old to the Dilemmas of the Fourth age. Gerontology 2: 123–135.

    6 Christensen K., Mc Gue M., Petersen I. and et al. 2008. Exceptional Longevity does not Result in Excessive Levels of Disability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 36: 13274–13279.

    7 Christensen K. and Doblhammer G., Rau R. and et al. 2009. Elderly populations: the Challenges Ahead. The lancet 9696: 1196–1208.

    8 Christensen K., Thinggaard M., Oksuzyan A. and et al. 2013. Physical and Cognitive Functioning of People Older than 90Years: Comparison of Two Danish Cohorts born 10 Years Apart. The Lancet 9903: 1507–1513.

    9 Crimmins E. M. and Beltrán Sánchez H.. 2011. Mortality and Morbidity Trends: is there Compression of Morbidity? The Journals of Gerontology: Series B 1:75-86.

    10 Freedman V. A., Martin L. G. and Schoeni R. F. 2002. Recent Trends in Disability and Functioning among Older Adults in the United States: a Systematic Review. Jama 24: 3137–3146.

    11 Freedman V. A., Spillman B. C., Andres ki P. M. and et al. 2013. Trends in Late-Life Activity Limitations in the United States: an Update From Five National Surveys. Demography: 1–11.

    12 Fries J.. 1980. Aging, Natural Death and the Compression of Morbidity-reply. New England Journal of Medicine 23: 1370–1370.

    13 Gruenberg E. M.. 1977. The Failures of Success. The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society 3: 24.

    14 Jeune B., Skytthe A., Cournil A. and et al. 2006. Handgrip Strength among Nonagenarians and Centenarians in Three European Regions. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 7: 707–712.

    15 Lagona F.. and Zhang Z.. 2010.. A Missing Composite Covariate in Survival Analysis: A Case Study of the Chinese Longitudinal Health and Longevity Survey. Statistics in Medicine 2: 248–261.

    16 Li Y.. 2005.. The Challenges of Aging toward Chinese Society. Public Administration and Management: An Interactive Journal 3:25-45.

    17 Manton.. 1982. Changing Concepts of Morbidity and Mortality in the Elderly Population. Milbank Quarterly 60: 183–244.

    18 Martin LG and Schoeni RF. 2014. Trends in Disability and Related Chronic Conditions Among the Forty-and-over Population: 1997–2010. Disability and Health Journal 1: S4-S14.

    19 Rebke M., Coulson T., Becker P. H. and et al. 2010. Reproductive Improvement and Senescence in a Long-lived bird. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 17: 7841–7846.

    20 Robine J. M. and Michel J. P.. 2004. Looking forward to a General Theory on Population Aging. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 6: 590–597.

    21 Smith J., Gerstorf D. and Li Q.. 2008. Psychological Resources for Well-being Among Octogenarians, Nonagenarians, and Centenarians: Differential Effects of Age and Selective Mortality. In: Healthy Longevity in China: Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Dimensions. Springer: 329–346.

    22 United Nations.. 2017. World Population Prospects. the 2017 Revision.

    23 Waidmann T., Bound J. and Schoenbaum M.. 1995. The Illusion of Failure: Trends in the Self-reported Health of the US Elderly. Milbank Quarterly 2: 253–287.

    24 Vaupel J. W. and Canudas Romo V.. 2002. Decomposing Demographic Change Into Direct vs. Compositional Components. Demographic Research 1: 1–14.

    25 Vaupel J. W., Manton K. G. and Stallard E.. 1979. The Impact of Heterogeneity in Individual Frailty on the Dynamics of Mortality. Demography 3: 439–454.

    26 Vaupel J. W. and Yashin A. I.. 1985. Heterogeneity’s Ruses: Some Surprising Effects of Selection on Population Dynamics. The American Statistician 3: 176–185.

    27 Zeng Y., Vaupel J. W., Zhenyu X. and et al. 2002. Sociodemographic and Health Profiles of the Oldest Old in China. Population and Development Review 2: 251–273.

    28 Zeng Y., Feng Q., Hesketh T. and et al. 2017. Survival Disabilities in Activities of Daily Living, and Physical and Cognitive Functioning Among the Oldest-old in China: a Cohort Study. The Lancet 389: 1619–1629.

This Article

ISSN:1000-6087

CN: 11-1489/C

Vol 42, No. 05, Pages 45-55

September 2018

Downloads:0

Share
Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Research background
  • 2 Data and methodology
  • 3 Analysis results
  • 4 Conclusion and discussion
  • References