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中国老年人隔代照料与健康后果的实证研究及政策思考

宋靓珺1 杨玲2 彭希哲1

(1.复旦大学人口与发展政策研究中心, Shanghai, ,China 200433)
(2.复旦大学社会发展与公共政策学院, 上海 200433)

【摘要】在中国家庭代际关系的研究中,隔代照料这一选题极为重要,隔代照料也是老年和家庭福利政策制定的重要影响因素。老年人隔代照料与健康问题日益受到国内学者的关注,但对两者相关性的深入实证考察较少,仅有的研究也未就隔代照料产生的健康后果达成共识,政策应对亦存局限。为此,本文基于2014年中国老年社会追踪调查(CLASS)截面数据,探讨中国老年人照料孙子女对自身健康产生的后果及几个主要变量之间的交互作用,对其进行量化研究并通过稳健性检验。研究得出三项基本结论:隔代照料的健康后果受到照料强度、子女特征、居住模式及老年人自身罹患慢性疾病状况的影响,在不同的特征状况下呈现不同的健康结果;照料者受教育程度、照料者性别、健在子女数等变量间的交互作用对被解释变量(照料者健康)产生了不同程度的调节作用,成年子女向上的代际支持也对老年照料者的健康发挥了调节作用;使用工具变量(照料者是否享受老年优待政策)进行因果识别在一定程度上克服了解释变量与被解释变量间的内生性问题。最后,本文基于上述实证研究的结果从代际关系视角、社会性别视角和老年婚姻社会功能等方面提出公共政策的应对思考,以期为制定相应的老年和家庭福利政策提供策略和依据。

【关键词】 隔代照料;身心健康;代际支持;公共政策;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 2019年度上海市哲学社会科学规划青年课题:健康老龄化背景下的老年人口生命质量的演变特征、影响因素及干预对策研究(2019ESH005);

The quantitative study of relationships between grandparenting and health outcome and implications for public policy

SONG Liangjun1 YANG Ling2 PENG Xizhe1

(1.Center for Population and Development Policy Studies, Fudan University, Shanghai, China 200433)
(2.School of Social Development and Public Policy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China 200433)

【Abstract】Grandparenting is an important topic in the intergeneration studies in the Chinese context, and becomes the influential factor for the elderly and family social welfare policy at the state level. The study between the grandparenting and health outcome has got increasing attention among the Chinese scholars. The quantitative studies, however, are relatively new. The existing quantitative studies are inconsistent, which results to the limited public policy implication as well. This study, therefore, is trying to fill this gap. The research findings include but are not limited to the following content. The health outcomes of grandparenting are influenced by the intensity of this activity, the character of children (the middle generation), the living arrangement and the prevalence chronic disease, and are different depending on the conditions. The interaction effects among education attainment, gender of caregivers and the number of the alive children have the mediation effect on the health outcome. The application of the instrumental variable (whether having the social welfare specialized for elderly population) has overcome the endogenous problem. Based on the above findings, this paper promotes the policy implications from the following perspectives: generational relationship, social gender, and the social function of marriage of the elderly caregivers.

【Keywords】 grandparenting; physical and mental health; intergenerational support; public policy;

【DOI】

【Funds】 Youth Project of Shanghai Philosophy and Social Science Planning in 2019 (2019ESH005);

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This Article

ISSN:1004-129X

CN: 22-1017/C

Vol 42, No. 01, Pages 55-69

January 2020

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Research status at home and abroad
  • 3 Research design and model results
  • 4 Basic conclusions
  • 5 Policy implication
  • References