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丧偶对老年人孤独感的影响:基于家庭支持的视角

赵晓航1 李建新2

(1.香港中文大学社会学系, 香港特别行政区 999077)
(2.北京大学社会学系, 北京 100871)

【摘要】文章运用2002年至2014年五期“中国老年健康长寿因素追踪调查”(CLHLS)数据,探讨中国老年人晚年丧偶和孤独感之间的因果关系以及家庭支持在老年人的丧偶和孤独感之间所发挥的调节作用。文章使用个体固定效应模型清除不随时间变化的不可观测因素,从而降低模型估计的遗漏变量偏误。研究结果表明:第一,无论对于老年男性还是老年女性,丧偶都会显著提高其孤独感水平,丧偶对于年纪更轻的老年人具有更严重的影响。随着时间的推移,丧偶对老年人孤独感的影响会相应减弱。第二,在丧偶之后,再婚有利于降低老年人的孤独感水平。在控制了其他因素后,再婚老年人的孤独感水平显著低于近期丧偶和长期丧偶的老年人,而与初婚老年人相比没有显著差异。第三,与子女、孙辈同住有利于抑制丧偶老年人的孤独感。从长期来看,“三代同堂”的居住格局最有利于降低丧偶老年人的孤独感。第四,向子女提供经济支持会提高近期丧偶老年女性的孤独感水平,而子女提供经济支持对于丧偶老年人孤独感的作用不显著。文章揭示了重建和改善家庭支持对于保护丧偶老年人精神健康的重要意义,指出再婚、与子女同住和减少子女的“啃老”行为等可能有助于降低丧偶老年人的孤独感。

【关键词】 丧偶;孤独;家庭支持;老年人;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 国家自然科学基金重大项目:健康老龄化——老年人口健康影响因素及有效干预的基础科学问题研究(71490732);

The effect of widowhood on loneliness among Chinese older adults: an empirical study from the perspective of family support

ZHAO Xiaohang1 LI Jianxin2

(1.Department of Sociology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China 999077)
(2.Department of Sociology, Peking University, Beijing, China 100871)

【Abstract】Using data from five periods of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) from 2002 to 2014, this study examines the effect of later-life widowhood on loneliness and investigates family support as the moderator between bereavement and loneliness. We employed individual fixed-effects model to sweep out time-constant unobserved confounders and thereby to attenuate possible omitted-variable bias in regression models. Our results first indicate that for both male and female older adults, widowhood significantly contributes to the increasing feelings of loneliness. Moreover, such effects are especially obvious among the younger elders. However, loneliness as a result of bereavement diminishes over time. Second, remarriage effectively lowers the level of loneliness of widowed seniors. After controlling for other factors, the remarried older adults are significantly less lonely than both the recently widowed and the long-term widowed. There is no substantial difference in the level of loneliness between the remarried and the first-married older adults. Third, Living together with children or grandchildren can reduce widowed seniors’ loneliness as well. For the long-term widowed elders, living with children and grandchildren together is the most effective living arrangement which helps to decrease their loneliness. Finally, providing financial support to children generates greater loneliness to recently widowed females, while receiving monetary support from children is ineffective in alleviating widowed elders’ loneliness. In sum, our findings reveal that rebuilding family ties and improving family support are crucial in protecting widowed seniors from psychological defects. More specifically, remarriage after widowhood, Living together with children, and children’s financial independence may ameliorate widowed seniors’ loneliness.

【Keywords】 widowhood; loneliness; family support; older adults;

【DOI】

【Funds】 National Natural Science Foundation of China (71490732);

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    Footnote

    [1]. ① We used the Stata to command lincom to perform a significance test of the linear combination of coefficients, which is the same below. [^Back]

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This Article

ISSN:1004-129X

CN: 22-1017/C

Vol 41, No. 06, Pages 30-43

November 2019

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Literature review and research hypotheses
  • 3 Data, variables and methods
  • 4 Empirical results
  • 5 Conclusion and discussion
  • Footnote

    References