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我国老年人口失能判别及其对健康预期寿命影响分析

吴炳义1 董惠玲2 王媛媛1 张晓青3

(1.潍坊医学院公共卫生与管理学院, 山东潍坊 261053)
(2.潍坊医学院护理学院, 山东潍坊 261053)
(3.山东师范大学人口资源与环境学院, 山东济南 250000)

【摘要】老年人口失能水平对健康预期寿命的测算具有重要影响, 而不同数据来源的老年人口失能水平存在着较大差异。本文以经过模型生命表调整的2015年1%人口抽样数据所计算的生命表为基础, 以2010年人口普查、2015年1%人口抽样调查、2015年CHARLS数据和2014年CLHLS数据为资料来源, 探讨老年人口分年龄失能状况及其对健康预期寿命测算结果的影响。老年人失能率较大程度地影响着健康预期寿命及其性别年龄模式。无论是失能的主观评价指标还是客观评价指标, 不同数据来源的高龄老人失能率差别较大;CHARLS数据中高龄老人失能率偏倚原因可能产生于调查过程中的系统误差, 而非样本规模较小;CLHLS和CHARLS中的问卷访题设计也是影响失能程度判别的重要因素。因此, 在理论和应用层面上探讨我国老年人口特别是高龄老人失能水平的差异及其原因, 逐步形成共识是学界亟待解决的重要问题。

【关键词】 失能率;健康预期寿命;模型生命表;生活自理能力;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 国家社会科学基金一般项目:我国老年人口健康预期寿命的变动趋势及其区域差异研究 (18BRK013) ; 国家社会科学基金一般项目:近20年国际生育率新变动的空间分异研究 (15BRK012) ;

Determination of disability and its influence on healthy life expectancy of Chinese elderly population

WU Bingyi1 DONG Huiling2 WANG Yuanyuan1 ZHANG Xiaoqing3

(1.School of Public Health and Management, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, China 261053)
(2.School of Nursing, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, China 261053)
(3.College of Population, Resources and Environment, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong, China 250000)

【Abstract】The disability level of the elderly population has an important influence on the estimation of healthy life expectancy. There are great differences in the disability level of the elderly population from different data sources. This paper is based on the life table calculated from the 1% population sample data adjusted by the model life table, based on data sources of 2010 census, the 1% sample survey in 2015, 2015 CHARLS and 2014 CLHLS. We study the influence of age-specific disability rate on healthy life expectancy and the reason of different disability situations. The results show that the disability rate of the elderly significantly affects healthy life expectancy and gender and age patterns. No matter whether it is the subjective or objective evaluation index of disability, the disability rates of elderly people from different data sources are quite different. The reasons for the bias of disability rate in CHARLS data may be caused by systematic errors in the course of investigation. The questionnaire interview design in the non-sample scale of CLHLS and CHARLS may also be an important factor to determine the degree of disability. Therefore, on the theoretical and practical level, it is an important problem to be solved urgently to explore the difference of disability level and its causes of the elderly population, especially for the oldest old, and to reach a consensus further.

【Keywords】 disability rate; healthy life expectancy; model life table; self-care ability;

【DOI】

【Funds】 General Project of the National Social Science Fund of China (18BRK013); General Project of the National Social Science Fund of China (15BRK012);

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This Article

ISSN:1004-129X

CN: 22-1017/C

Vol 41, No. 01, Pages 101-112

January 2019

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Literature review of the disability of elderly population
  • 3 Data sources and research methods
  • 4 Research results
  • 5 Conclusions and Discussions
  • References