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跨文化流动与健康——基于CLDS数据的实证研究

王婷1 李建民1

(1.南开大学经济学院, 天津 300071)

【摘要】一个人的流动经历与其健康状况密切相关, 这种关系不仅与迁移的地理距离有关, 也与迁出地和迁入地的文化差异有关。跨文化迁移一般是通过心理压力、生活方式、收入水平和社会网络等途径对移民健康产生影响。本文选取方言、饮食和观念距离作为文化距离的代理变量, 使用2014年CLDS数据分析跨文化迁移对乡城流动人口健康状况的影响及其影响机制。描述性统计分析表明乡城流动人口对于流动的文化距离具有选择性, 他们大多在同一方言区和饮食圈内部进行流动, 流入地和流出地的观念距离也较近。基于Probit回归结果发现方言和观念距离对乡城流动人口健康状况有显著负面影响, 收入水平和社会网络在其中起着中介作用, 但饮食距离对乡城流动人口健康状况的影响不显著。本文为克服可能存在的内生性问题构建了PSM模型, 同时使用地形距离这一客观变量作为工具变量, 这两种方法得到的结果与上述结论基本一致。使用“诊断需住院”和“身体疼痛”两个客观指标进行稳健性检验后, 基本结论依然成立, 具有稳健性。此外, 方言和观念距离对乡城流动人口健康状况的影响存在异质性, 流动持续年份、性别、流动次数、本地方言技能是导致该异质性的重要因素。

【关键词】 乡城流动人口;跨文化流动;健康;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 国家社会科学基金青年项目:信息通信技术进步对中国劳动市场的影响研究 (16CJY013) ;

Cross-cultural migration and health: evidence from CLDS data

WANG Ting1 LI Jianmin1

(1.School of Economics, Nankai University, Tianjin, China 300071)

【Abstract】The migration experience is closely related to migrants’ health status, which is related to geographical distance and cultural distance. Cross-cultural migration generally affects migrants’ health through psychological pressure, lifestyle, income and social network. When choosing dialectal, dietetic and conceptual distance as proxy variables of cultural distance, using the data from CLDS, the paper analyzes the cross-cultural migration’s effect to rural migrants’ health as well as the reasons causing this effect. Descriptive statistics show that rural migrants are selective to cultural distance. Most of rural migrants move to the same dialect area and food circle, and the conceptual distance is also close. The Probit model results show that dialectal and conceptual distance has a significantly negative impact on the self-assessed health of rural migrants, and moreover, income level and social network play a role of mediation effect. The influence of dietetic distance is not significant. When applying PSM and IV Probit model to solve endogenous problems, the results reveal that conclusions of this paper are robust. Using two objective indicators for the robustness test, the basic conclusion is still valid. There are heterogeneities caused by the duration of migrants staying in their destination, gender, the number of migrations and local dialect skill when analyzing cultural distance’s effect on rural migrants’ self-assessed health (SAH).

【Keywords】 rural migrants; cross-cultural migration; health;

【DOI】

【Funds】 Youth Project of the National Social Science Fund of China (16CJY013);

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    Footnote

    [1]. ① The cultural distance index is obtained according to the data of the World Values Survey (WVS), which include the inquiries on the residents of 74 countries and regions around the world concerning their views and attitudes regarding the family, work, life, politics, society, religion and national identity. The index is obtained via calculating the average score of residents of each country/region on the aforementioned questions. The specific method of calculation will be described below. [^Back]

    [2]. ① Migrants refer to the population whose permanent residence is different from the registered residence and who leaves the registered residence for more than half a year. On account of the purpose of this study, this paper excludes the samples of urban-rural migrants, urban-urban migrants, rural residents, and return residents with migrant experiences. [^Back]

    [3]. ① In the CGSS questionnaire, there is the situation that a question is put forward for various attitudes of the respondent. For instance, the question D24 is as follows: do you agree with the following statements, which is treated as multiple questions in this paper. [^Back]

    [4]. ② The equation proposed by Kakwani for measuring the income deprivation of the individual yi is as follows: , where, Y is a group and the sample size is n. Arranged in ascending order of income, y1y2 ≤ . . . ≤ yn, of which the income vector is y = (y1, y2, . . . , yn), with μY as the mean of group Y. [^Back]

    [5]. ① The concept of dialect region is broadened here by involving North China official dialect, Northwest official dialect, Northeast official dialect, Southwest official dialect, and Jianghuai official dialect into the official dialect area. The CLDS data do not include the samples of Korean language region. Therefore, there are 13 dialect regions in the section of variable definition but 10 dialect areas here. [^Back]

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This Article

ISSN:1004-129X

CN: 22-1017/C

Vol 41, No. 01, Pages 45-57

January 2019

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Literature review
  • 3 Theoretical framework and research hypotheses
  • 4 Data and variables
  • 5 Empirical analysis of the impact of cultural distance on the health status of migrants
  • 6 Conclusion
  • Footnote

    References