跨文化流动与健康——基于CLDS数据的实证研究

王婷1 李建民1

(1.南开大学经济学院, 天津 300071)

【摘要】一个人的流动经历与其健康状况密切相关, 这种关系不仅与迁移的地理距离有关, 也与迁出地和迁入地的文化差异有关。跨文化迁移一般是通过心理压力、生活方式、收入水平和社会网络等途径对移民健康产生影响。本文选取方言、饮食和观念距离作为文化距离的代理变量, 使用2014年CLDS数据分析跨文化迁移对乡城流动人口健康状况的影响及其影响机制。描述性统计分析表明乡城流动人口对于流动的文化距离具有选择性, 他们大多在同一方言区和饮食圈内部进行流动, 流入地和流出地的观念距离也较近。基于Probit回归结果发现方言和观念距离对乡城流动人口健康状况有显著负面影响, 收入水平和社会网络在其中起着中介作用, 但饮食距离对乡城流动人口健康状况的影响不显著。本文为克服可能存在的内生性问题构建了PSM模型, 同时使用地形距离这一客观变量作为工具变量, 这两种方法得到的结果与上述结论基本一致。使用“诊断需住院”和“身体疼痛”两个客观指标进行稳健性检验后, 基本结论依然成立, 具有稳健性。此外, 方言和观念距离对乡城流动人口健康状况的影响存在异质性, 流动持续年份、性别、流动次数、本地方言技能是导致该异质性的重要因素。

【关键词】 乡城流动人口; 跨文化流动; 健康;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 国家社会科学基金青年项目:信息通信技术进步对中国劳动市场的影响研究 (16CJY013)

Download this article

    脚注

    [1]. (1) 文化距离指数根据世界价值观调查 (WVS) 数据得到, 该数据有询问全世界74个国家和地区的居民, 他们有关家庭、工作、生活、政治、社会、宗教、国家认同方面的观点和态度, 计算每个国家/地区居民对于上述问题的平均得分, 得出该指数, 具体计算方法下文会详述。 [^Back]

    [2]. (1) 流动人口指常住地与户籍登记地不同, 离开户籍所在地半年以上的人口。鉴于本文的研究目的, 本文删除城乡流动人口、城城流动人口、农村居民、存在流动经历且已返乡居民的样本。 [^Back]

    [3]. (1) 在CGSS调查问卷中, 存在一个问题询问被访者多方面的态度, 如问题“D24:您是否同意以下说法?”, 本文中此该问题视为多个问题。 [^Back]

    [4]. (2) Kakwani给出的个体yi收入剥夺测算公式为:, 其中, Y为一个群, 样本数为n, 按收入升序排列, 即y1y2≤⋯≤yn, 其收入向量为y= (y1, y2, ⋯, yn) , μY是群Y的均值。 [^Back]

    [5]. (1) 此处使用方言大区的概念, 将华北官话、西北官话、东北官话、西南官话、江淮官话合并为官方方言区, CLDS数据中未包括朝鲜语地区的样本, 因此, 变量界定中为13个方言区, 此处为10个方言大区。 [^Back]

    References

    [1]Lysgaand S. Adjustment in a Foreign Society:Norwegian Fulbright Grantees Visiting the United States[J]. International Social Bulletin, 1955, 7:45-51.

    [2]Gullahorn J T, Gullahorn J E. An Extension of the U-curve Hypothesis[J]. Journal of Social Issues, 1963, 19 (3) :33-47.

    [3]Adler P. The Transnational Experience:An Alternative View of Culture Shock[J]. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 1975, 15:13-23.

    [4]Gordon, M M. Assimilation in American Life:The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins[M]. New York, NY:Oxford University Press, 1964.

    [5]Berry J W, Trimble J E, Olmedo E L. Assessment of Acculturation[J]. Cambridge Handbook of Acculturation Psychology, 1986, 8:293-314.

    [6]Palinkas L A, Pickwell S M. Acculturation as a Risk Factor for Chronic Disease among Cambodian Refugees in the United States[J]. Social Science&Medicine, 1995, 40 (12) :1643-1653.

    [7]Berry J W. Immigration, Acculturation, and Adaptation[J]. Applied Psychology, 1997, 46 (1) :5-34.

    [8]Lonner W J, Berry J W. Field Methods in Cross-cultural Research[M]. Sage Publications, 1986.

    [9]Cheung P. Acculturation and Psychiatric Morbidity among Cambodian Refugees in New Zealand[J]. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1995, 41 (2) :108-119.

    [10]Takeuchi D T, Chung C Y, Lin K M, et al. Lifetime and Twelve-month Prevalence Rates of Major Depressive Episodes and Dysthymia among Chinese Americans in Los Angeles[J]. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1998, 155 (10) :1407-14.

    [11]Sonuga-Barke E J and Mistry M. The Effect of Extended Family Living on the Mental Health of Three Generations within Two Asian Communities[J]. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2011, 39 (2) :129-141.

    [12]Marmot M G, Syme S L. Acculturation and Coronary Heart Disease in Japanese-Americans[J]. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1976, 104 (3) :225-247.

    [13]Reed D, McGee D, Cohen J, et al. Acculturation and Coronary Heart Disease among Japanese Men in Hawaii[J]. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1982, 115 (6) :894-905.

    [14]Schaffer, D M, Velie E M, Shaw G M, et al. Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Health Practices of Latinas and White Non-Latinas in the 3 Months before Pregnancy[J]. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 1998, 98:876-884.

    [15]Abraído-lanza A F, Chao M T, Flórez K R. Do Healthy Behaviors Decline with Greater Acculturation?Implications for the Latino Mortality Paradox[J]. Social Science&Medicine, 2005, 61 (6) :1243-1255.

    [16]Finch B K, Vega W A. Acculturation Stress, Social Support, and Self-rated Health among Latinos in California[J]. Journal of Immigrant Health, 2003, 5 (3) :109-117.

    [17]Bzostek S, Goldman N, Pebley A. Why do Hispanics in the USA Report Poor Health?[J]. Social Science&Medicine, 2007, 65 (5) :990-1003.

    [18]Rogler L H, Cortes D E, Malgady R G. Acculturation and Mental Health Status among Hispanics. Convergence and New Directions for Research[J]. American Psychologist, 1991, 46 (6) :585-597.

    [19]Dawson, E J, Crano, W D, Burgdoon, M. Refining the Meaning and Measurement of Acculturation:Revisiting a Novel Methodological Approach[J]. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1996, 20 (1) :97-114.

    [20]Kimbro R T. Acculturation in Context:Gender, Age at Migration, Neighborhood Ethnicity, and Health Behaviors[J]. Social Science Quarterly, 2009, 90 (5) :1145-1166.

    [21]Lara M, Gamboa C, Kahramanian M I, et al. Acculturation and Latino Health in the United States:A Review of the Literature and Its Sociopolitical Context[J]. Annual Review of Public Health, 2005, 26 (1) :367-397.

    [22]Alba R, Nee V. Rethinking Assimilation Theory for a New Era of Immigration[J]. Int Migr Rev, 1997, 31 (4) :826-874.

    [23]Thomson M D, Hoffman-Goetz L. Defining and Measuring Acculturation:A Systematic Review of Public Health Studies with Hispanic Populations in the United States[J]. Social Science&Medicine, 2009, 69 (7) :992-991.

    [24]Detollenaere J, Baert S, Willems S. Association between Cultural Distance and Migrant Self-rated Health[J]. European Journal of Health Economics Hepac Health Economics in Prevention&Care, 2018, 19 (2) :257-266.

    [25]Spolaore E, Wacziarg R. Ancestry, Language and Culture[M]. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016.

    [26]Babiker I E, Cox J L, Miller P M. The Measurement of Cultural Distance and Its Relationship to Medical Consultations, Symptomatology and Examination Performance of Overseas Students at Edinburgh University[J]. Social Psychiatry, 1980, 15 (3) :109-116.

    [27]Waxin M F. Expatriates’Interaction Adjustment:The Direct and Moderator Effects of Culture of Origin[J]. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2004, 28 (1) :61-79.

    [28]齐亚强.自评一般健康的信度和效度分析[J].社会, 2014, (6) :196-215.

    [29]Kakwani N. The Relative Deprivation Curve and Its Applications[J]. Journal of Business&Economic Statistics, 1984, 2 (4) :384-394.

    [30]Baron R M, Kenny D A. The Moderator-mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research:Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations[J]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1986, 51 (6) :1173-1182.

    [31]刘毓芸, 徐现祥, 肖泽凯.劳动力跨方言流动的倒U型模式[J].经济研究, 2015, (10) :134-146.

    [32]Benjamins M R, Hummer R A, Eberstein I W, et al. Self-reported Health and Adult Mortality Risk:An Analysis of Cause-specific Mortality[J]. Social Science&Medicine, 2004, 59 (6) :1297-1306.

This Article

ISSN:1004-129X

CN: 22-1017/C

Vol 41, No. 01, Pages 45-57

January 2019

Downloads:0

Share
Article Outline

摘要

  • 一、引言
  • 二、文献综述
  • 三、理论框架与研究假设
  • 四、数据与变量
  • 五、文化距离对流动人口健康状况影响的实证分析
  • 六、总结
  • 脚注

    参考文献