The influence of education on facial attractiveness
(2.School of Public Affairs, Chongqing University)
【Abstract】Based on the baseline data of the China Family Panel Studies in 2010, the study explores the influence of education years on facial attractiveness and its mechanism. The study finds that years of education have a positive effect on facial attractiveness through channel variables, such as income, occupation, leisure life, and bad habits. Education has a positive impact on income, occupation and leisure life, and a negative impact on bad habits. The study also shows that the most important channels for education to affect facial attractiveness are occupation and leisure life, and explains the theory of constrains and efficiency theory that explains the impact of education on facial attractiveness.
【Keywords】 education years; facial attractiveness; influence channels;
(Translated by WANG bo)
. ① CFPS 2010 data are a survey conducted by CFPS group of Peking University in cooperation with universities nationwide. The interviewers are mainly senior college students and graduate students, with similar age, values and educational background. All the interviewers were trained before the survey. According to the CFPS questionnaire and the survey manual, the explanation part of the question was mainly to score objectively according to their facial features. Interviewers’ scores are consistent, so the influence of age and education level can be effectively controlled. [^Back]
Cheng, L., Zhang, Y. & Shen, K. China Economic Quarterly (经济学 (季刊)), (1) (2015).
Hu, A. Social Sciences in China (中国社会科学), (5) (2014).
Jiang, Q. & Zhang, K. China Economic Quarterly (经济学 (季刊)), (3) (2013).
Liu, Y. Journal of Psychological Science (心理科学), (6) (2009).
Ma, Y., Yin, Z., Lu, Y. et al. China Journal of Health Psychology (中国健康心理学杂志), (11) (2015).
Wang, N. Sociological Studies (社会学研究), (1) (2001).
Xu, D. Journal of Psychological Science (心理科学), (4) (2003).
Bahman, Guyuron et al. 2009, “Factors Contributing to the Facial Aging of Identical Twins.” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 123(4).
Berg, I. 1971, “Education for Jobs: The Great Training Robbery.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 25(100).
Bills, David B. 2003, “Credentials, Signals, and Screens: Explaining the Relationship between Schooling and Job Assignment.” Review of Educational Research 73(73).
Demierre, M. F. et al.1999, “Public Knowledge, Awareness, and Perceptions of The Association between Skin Aging and Smoking.” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 41(1).
Hamermesh, Daniel S. 2011, Beauty Pays: Why Attractive People Are More Successful. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hamermesh, Daniel S. & J. E. Biddle 1994, “Beauty and the Labor Market.” American Economic Review 84(5).
Jones, Doug & K. Hill 1993, “Criteria of Facial Attractiveness in Five Populations.” Human Nature 4(3).
Kadunce, D. P. et al. 1991, “Cigarette Smoking: Risk Factor for Premature Facial Wrinkling.” Annals of Internal Medicine 114(10).
Kanazawa, Satoshi & J. L. Kovar 2004, “Why Beautiful People Are More Intelligent.” Intelligence 32(3).
Kenkel, Donald S. 1991, “Health Behavior, Health Knowledge, and Schooling.” Journal of Political Economy 99(2).
Langlois, Judith H. et al. 1991, “Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.” Developmental Psychology 27(1).
Little, Anthony C., D. M. Burt & D. I. Perrett 2006, “Assortative Mating for Perceived Facial Personality Traits.” Personality and Individual Differences 40(5).
Little, Anthony C., B. C. Jones & L. M. Debruine 2011, “Facial Attractiveness: Evolutionary Based Research.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences 366(1571).
Mirowsky, John & Catherine E. Ross 2003, Education, Social Status, and Health. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Muney, A.2010, “The Needs of the Army Using Compulsory Relocation in the Military to Estimate the Effect of Air Pollutants on Children’s Health.” Journal of Human Resources 45(3).
Patterson, Jennifer 2014, “These Clothes Don’t Fit!: Identity, Hybridity and Education in The City.” International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development 5(2).
Peiro, Amado 2006, “Happiness, Satisfaction and Socio-economic Conditions: Some International Evidence.” The Journal of Socio-economics 35(2).
Scholz, John Karl & K. Sicinski 2015, “Facial Attractiveness and Lifetime Earnings: Evidence from a Cohort Study.” Review of Economics and Statistics 97(1).
Takema, Y. et al. 1994, “Age-related Changes in the Elastic Properties and Thickness of Human Facial Skin.” British Journal of Dermatology 131(5).
Webbink, D., N. G. Martin & P. M. Visscher 2010, “Does Education Reduce the Probability of Being Overweight?” Journal of Health Economics 29(1).