Research on Rural Waste Recycling Mode and its Evaluation in Village
【Abstract】In recent years, China’s rural areas have witnessed rapid economic development, and the living and production wastes in rural areas have gradually increased. However, due to the limited economic development level, some villages are lack of facilities for collection, treatment, and disposal of these wastes. The recycling of living and production wastes in villages is an important way for environmental protection in the rural areas and for improving the efficiency of resource utilization. It is easy to find some practical and mature technologies to treat one kind of wastes in rural area, but there lacks overall consideration for the recycling of production and living wastes in villages. In this paper, we took a typical village (village A) in the mountainous area of Xingtai City, Hebei Province as an example, and constructed a recycling system of production and living wastes. Fruit planting and rural tourism are the leading industries in village A. The main wastes in village A are fruit tree pruning, household solid waste, sewage, and manure. The recycling system of the village was constructed with technologies and facilities such as composting of organic wastes, pyrolysis of fruit tree pruning, sewage treatment, and the collection and treatment of solid wastes. The energy recovery and fertilizer use were realized in the village, and the residential environment governance achieved a higher level. A combination of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy evaluation method was adopted to construct the index system to evaluate the technology system of the recycling of wastes from living and production. A total of 26 indexes were chosen in the index system, which contained technological, economic and social, and environmental indexes. The weight of each index was determined by the expert scoring method. Residents’ acceptance, cost for garbage collection, average steady running time of the treatment facilities, and qualification rate of surface water and soil showed higher weights in rural area of north China. The method was used to evaluate the recycling system of village A, and the result showed that the technology system of recycling of wastes from living and production in village A was level excellent. The evaluation method could fully reflect the characteristics of the recycling mode of living and production wastes in rural areas. The evaluation methods in this study would provide a methodology reference for assessing, selecting, integrating, and promoting the technology system of recycling of wastes from living and production in China. It is a new thought to commit an overall design of the recycling system of the village, according to the village type, location, and regional economic, and to modify it through scientific evaluation, which can greatly improve the quality of rural area development, governance, and environmental protection. We will conduct evaluation and research on different types of typical villages in the southern area and the plain area of northern China in the future, further improve the evaluation method, and provide guidance for the construction and operation of the recycling systems of living and production wastes in natural villages.
【Keywords】 rural area; waste disposal; recycling; mode; evaluation;
 Shen Yansheng. The rise–fall and reconstruction of village management [J]. Strategy and Management 1998 (6): 1–34 (in Chinese).
 Zhao Lixin, Meng Haibo, Shen Yujun, et al. Investigation and development analysis of planting–breeding circulating agriculture ecosystem system in northern plains in China [J]. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE), 2017, 33 (18): 1–10 (in Chinese).
 Wang Bing, Wei Xiuli, Gao Lihong, et al. Study on characteristics of production and domestic waste in southern natural village [J]. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 2017, 45 (34): 47–49 (in Chinese).
 Yue Bo, Zhang Zhibin, Sun Yingjie, et al. Characteristics of rural household solid wastes in China [J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2014, 37 (6): 129–134 (in Chinese).
 Nie Erqi, Zheng Guodi, Gao Ding, et al. Status quo and strategy for management of rural domestic waste in West China [J]. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment. 2017, 33 (10): 882–889 (in Chinese).
 Yang Yanmei, Shi Kai, He Liansheng, et al. The pollution control and circular economy combined mode which can in situ utilize organic wastes to the greatest extent in farmhouse tourism towns [J]. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences. 2015, 43 (10): 231–233 (in Chinese).
 Wu Guansuo, Mao Jiugeng, Chen Wei, et al. Status investigation and reason analysis on waste pollution in village and town of hilly region in Nanjing City [J]. Jiangsu Agricultural Sciences, 2008 (1): 248–250 (in Chinese).
 Lin Mingtai, Chen Guocheng. Developmental mode and benefit: The ecological cyclic rural courtyard agriculture of Putian County [J]. Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University: Social Science Edition, 2009, 11 (3): 350–353 (in Chinese).
 Jiang Zhiyi, Lu Hai, Chen Xi, et al. Exploration on the rural circling economic mode of “multi-location, on body” in southwest regions of China [J]. Chinese Journal of Agricultural Resources and Regional 2007, 35 (4): 75–78 (in Chinese).
 Zhang Congguang, Han Jiancong, Qiu Ling, et al. Energy method-based evaluation of the sustainability of the “Five in–One” ecological orchard system [J]. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 2018, 37 (2): 276–285. (in Chinese)
 Pan Genxing, Lin Zhenheng, Li Lianqing, et al. Perspective on biomass carbon industrialization of organic waste from agriculture and rural areas in China [J]. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 2011, 13 (1): 75–82 (in Chinese).
 Zhao Menglong. The Investigation of Rural Life Waste Collection and Transportation Mode Evaluation of Which is Based on Surveys of Hubei Province Waste Disposal [D]. Wuhan: Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 2014 (in Chinese).
 Ju Changhua, Zhang Weidong, Zhu Lin, et al. China’s rural sewage treatment problems and countermeasures [J]. Environmental Protection, 2016, 44 (6): 49–52 (in Chinese).
 Xiang Xin, Luo Yu, Cheng Hongsheng, et al. Biogas engineering technology screening based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation [J]. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2014, 30 (18): 205–212 (in Chinese).
 Wang Lijing, Liu Xiuyan. The establishment and applications of circular agriculture evaluation system—take Handan as an example [J]. On Economic Problems, 2013 (12): 80–83 (in Chinese).
 Chen Dongmei. Circular Agriculture Structural Analyse Evaluate and Optimize in Village Scale—A Case Study of the Village of Heheng in Jiangyan Jiangsu Province [D]. Nanjing: Nanjing Agricultural University, 2006 (in Chinese).
 Sun Jianwei, Huang Xianjin, Ma Qifang. Evaluation of the development of regional agricultural recycling economy by gray relational analysis—a case study of Nanjing City [J]. Acta Agriculturae Universitis Jiangxiensis, 2007, 29 (3): 508–512 (in Chinese).
 Wang Xiaolong. An Integrated Framework Based on Life Cycle Assessment and Emergy Evaluation for Circular Agriculture: Methods and Cases [D]. Beijing: China Agricultural University, 2016 (in Chinese).
 Duan Na, Lin Cong, Liu Xiaodong, et al. Energy analysis of biogas-linked eco-village circulating system [J]. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2015, 31 (Supp. 1): 261–268 (in Chinese).
 Li Yuhang, Su Xing, Song Bo. A case study on environmental evaluation model for utilization of straw waste resources in the villages [J]. Renewable Energy Resources, 2017, 35 (3): 317–322 (in Chinese).
 Qiu Huajiao, Chang Xin, Cheng Xu, et al. The analysis and design of agricultural sustainability indicators system [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2005, 38 (4): 736–745 (in Chinese).
 Wang Fen, Wu Jianjun, Lu Jianbo, et al. A study on the sustainable development indicator system and its application for evaluation of regional agro-ecosystems [J]. Journal of Natural Resources, 2003, 18 (4): 453–458 (in Chinese).
 Ma Qifang, Huang Xianjin, Peng Buzhuo, et al. A positive study of the evaluation on the development of regional agricultural recycling economy [J]. Journal of Natural Resources, 2005, 20 (6): 891–899 (in Chinese).
 Zhang Jian. Analysis and appraisement on the agricultural circular economy and rural circular economy in Guizhou [J]. Science of Science and Management of S. & T., 2009, 30 (5): 111–116 (in Chinese).
 Wang Yuanzhong, Li Jianjun. Study on evaluation index system and evaluation method of eco-agriculture [J]. Journal of Agro-environmental Science, 1990, 9 (4): 21–26 (in Chinese).
 Song Chengjun, Zhang Yuhua, Li Bingfeng. Comprehensive evaluation index system and method on resource utilization technology of agricultural residues [J]. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2011, 27 (11): 289–293 (in Chinese).
 Cong Hongbin, Yao Zonglu, Zhao Lixin, et al. Development of carbon, gas and oil poly-generation pilot system based on biomass continuous pyrolysis [J]. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2017, 33 (18): 173–179 (in Chinese).
 Cong Hongbin, Zhao Lixin, Meng Haibo, et al. Applicability evaluation of biomass pyrolytic poly-generation technology on clean heating in northern rural of China [J]. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2018, 34 (1): 8–14 (in Chinese).