Study on emission characteristics of ammonia from anaerobic digesters in industrial pig farm

LIU Bo1 LIU Xiao1 HAN Yujie1 DU Wei2 GAO Yan1 ZENG Jieliang1 GUAN Lei1 TONG Yi1 FAN Junqi1 YANG Yue1 LI Wenjing2 HE Fei2 WANG Wenlin

(1.School of Geography Science, Nantong University, Nantong, China 226007)
(2.Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing, China 210042)

【Abstract】The problem of environmental pollution caused by large-scale development of livestock and poultry breeding is increasingly severe in China. It is predicted that the fecal production of livestock and poultry in China will reach 42.44 billion tons in 2020, and the fecal pollution will rank the first among the agricultural sources. The greenhouse gases and odorous odors released by livestock manure are important sources of air pollutants, and ammonia is one of the main gases released by manure. Ammonia is not only a threat to the health of surrounding populations of livestock and poultry farms, but also an important part of the atmospheric acid deposition which can lead to soil acidification and eutrophication, and further become a serious threat to the ecological environment. Therefore, it is of great significance to carry out a study on the characteristics of ammonia emissions from typical large-scale pig farms, clarify the current situation of ammonia emissions from typical agricultural sources, which can provide the foundation for controlling the atmospheric particulate matter pollution and improving the regional air quality. The biogas produced by anaerobic fermentation is a common method for treatment of fecal pollution in large-scale livestock and poultry farms. The process can not only generate clean energy and reduce fecal stench, but also recycle nutrients in the form of fertilizer. Therefore, the treatment model centering on large-scale biogas project has developed rapidly. At present, there is still a lack of in-situ monitoring and research on ammonia discharge at the nodes of the typical fecal treatment process. The systematic research on the impact of the anaerobic fermentation biogas production facility on the release of pig fecal ammonia has not been reported. A typical methane project of large-scale pig farms in the Yangtze River Delta was used as the research object in this study. The ammonia emission was monitored for three consecutive days at each emission node (cesspool, regulating pond, and biogas slurry pool) of the biogas engineering facilities. The results showed that the average daily emission rates of ammonia in cesspool, regulating pond, and biogas slurry pool were 1.48, 3.08, and 1.47 g/(d·m2), respectively. The ammonia emission at each node had an obvious daily change process, which was generally manifested as the fluctuant increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and the low-value emission at night. The cesspool and regulating pond in the turnover period of fecal pollution appeared daily emission peak; the ammonia emission rates of the cesspool, regulating pond, and biogas slurry pool were positively correlated with the temperature in stable stage, while negatively correlated with the humidity. The daily ammonia emissions of cesspool, regulating pond, and biogas slurry pool were 13.44, 38.72, and 5 275.4 g/d, respectively. We selected a typical large-scale pig farm with anaerobic fermentation for biogas production and conducted the field monitoring for the ammonia concentration at each node of treatment facilities. By calculating the excreta ammonia emission rate at each emission node, the characteristics of ammonia emission were analyzed, and the main factors influencing ammonia emission were identified. The results provide a reference for the calculation of ammonia emissions from livestock and poultry farms and the formulation of the ammonia emission reduction measures.

【Keywords】 ammonia; emission control; biogas engineering; industrial pig farm; Yangtze River Delta;

【DOI】

【Funds】 Project for the Cause of Heavy Air Pollution and Its Harnessing (DQGG0208) National Environmental Protection Special Research Grant for Non-Profit Public Service (201509038) Budget Project of Ministry of Environmental Protection Department “Guidelines for the Control of Atmospheric Ammonia Emission Pollution in Livestock and Poultry Farming” Innovation Training Program for College Students of Jiangsu Province (201810304035Z, 201810304078Y)

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(Translated by LIU T)

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This Article

ISSN:1002-6819

CN: 11-2047/S

Vol 34, No. 23, Pages 179-185

December 2018

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 0 Introduction
  • 1 Materials and methods
  • 2 Results and analyses
  • 3 Discussion
  • 4 Conclusions
  • References