Aerated subsurface drip irrigation improving soil aeration and tomato growth
【Abstract】The effects of aerated subsurface drip irrigation (ASDI) on yield potential and quality of crop, and the relationships of soil aeration with crop yield and fruit quality are poorly known. In order to reveal the relationship between crop growth and soil aeration under ASDI, a pot experiment was conducted using tomato in the Efficiency Agriculture Water Experimental Farm of North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power (34°47′5.91″N, 113°47′20.15″E). Herein, two levels of irrigation amount (W1 and W2 as 0.6 and 1.0 times of the crop-pan coefficient, respectively) and two aeration treatments (A and C as ASDI and control treatment, i.e., non-aeration treatment by subsurface drip irrigation) were set up. During the trial, the air-filled porosity, soil dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation–reduction potential (Eh), oxygen diffusion rate (ODR), soil respiration, photosynthesis indexes, crop aboveground biomass, root biomass, nutrient uptake, yield, and fruit quality were monitored systematically. The correlation analysis was conducted among soil aeration indexes, photosynthesis indexes, nutrient uptake efficiency, yield, and fruit quality. The results showed that the ASDI improved the soil aeration. Compared with those of control group, the DO in W2A and W1A treatments increased by 25.71% and 10.64% on the next day after irrigation at flowering and fruit bearing stage (P < 0.05). In W2A and W1A, similarly, the ODRs increased by 52.90% and 32.27% and the Ehs increased by 41.99% and 20.99%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with that of the control group, the soil respiration in W2A and W1A significantly increased by 64.70% and 28.45% at the flowering and fruit bearing stage, 14.17% and 33.24% at the fruit expanding stage, and 56.91% and 32.86% at the maturity stage (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, there were obvious positive correlations among ODR, Eh, DO, and air-filled porosity (P < 0.01). The ASDI had a positive effect on the crop photosynthesis, benefiting the increment in biomass, nutrient uptake, and crop quality. Compared with those of the control group, the net photosynthetic rates in W2A treatment at flowering and fruit bearing stage, fruit expanding stage, and maturity stage increased by 14.51%, 21.72%, and 13.76%, respectively (P < 0.05). The net photosynthetic rate in W1A treatment at fruit expanding stage increased by 55.26% (P < 0.05). The aboveground fresh weight and root fresh weight significantly increased by 68.14% and 55.18% in W2A treatment, and by 9.88% and 45.37% in W1A treatment (P < 0.05). Compared with those of the control treatment, the nitrogen uptake in root, stem, and leaf increased by 52.94%, 42.03%, and 24.12%; the phosphorus utilization in root and stem increased by 74.07% and 36.00%; and the potassium accumulation in root, stem, and leaf increased by 56.52%, 41.09%, and 22.44% in W2A treatment (P < 0.05), respectively. Similarly, the crop yield, fruit soluble solids, vitamin C content, total acid content, and soluble protein in W2A increased by 66.40%, 51.77%, 20.26%, 55.26%, and 63.64%, respectively (P < 0.05). The fruit soluble solids, vitamin C content and total acid content in W1A treatment increased by 43.55%, 29.68%, and 71.43%, respectively (P < 0.05). The ASDI treatment at the irrigation of 1.0 time of the crop-pan coefficient showed the most efficient promotion on soil aeration, crop growth and fruit quality. There were significantly positive correlations of crop yield with DO, Eh, and respiration under ASDI (P < 0.05). In addition, there were positive correlations between crop quality (soluble solids and total acid content) and soil aeration indexes (DO, ODR, and respiration) (P < 0.05). In sum, these results would provide valuable information for the enhancement effects of ASDI on soil aeration, crop yield and fruit quality.
【Keywords】 photosynthesis; biomass; irrigation; soil aeration; crop growth; yield; fruit quality; nutrient uptake;
(Translated by LIU T)
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