Optimal design and experiment of 3SFBQ-500 type orchard gas explosion subsoiling and fertilizer injection machine

XI Xiaobo1,2 ZHANG Ruihong1 SHAN Xiang1 JIN Yifu1 ZHANG Jianfeng1

(1.College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China 225127)
(2.School of Hydraulic Energy and Power Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China 225127)

【Abstract】At present, in the orchard fertilization process, the most widely used method is ditching and fertilizing. However, the orchard ditching and fertilizing technology has a series of problems, such as easy damage to tree roots, high energy consumption, and uneven fertilization. Meanwhile, soil compaction frequently exists in orchard land due to no farming in a long time, which is not beneficial to rainwater leakage and nutrient transport in soil, so it is of great need to develop a new kind of fertilization machine. In this context, a 3SFBQ-500 type gas explosion subsoiling and fertilizer injection machine was designed, which used high-pressure gas to shock soil body and then injected fertilizer. The drill pipe mechanism with pneumatic chipping hammer excitation and hydraulic boosting was designed to drill the soil, and the maximum drilling depth reached 500 mm. The dynamical model and kinematical equation of soil drilling by pneumatic chipping hammer with hydraulic boosting were established, and the force analysis of drill pipe during the soil drilling process was performed. The drill bit structure parameters were optimized as taper angle of 60° and pipe radius of 12.5 mm. An economical multi-knob switch control system was made to improve the equipment automation and reduce the intensity of labor operations, which could make the machine operations controlled manually and automatically. The working processes of soil drilling, gas explosion subsoiling, liquid fertilizer injection and drill pipe rebound were completed in a key operation. Then a 3D (three-dimensional) model of the whole machine was established using Solid Works software. On this basis, the machine prototype was produced. Afterwards, field experiments were carried out, and the results showed that soil fractures were created by gas explosion. Under the condition of 0.8 MPa gas pressure and 300 mm drilling depth, the maximum breadth of fractures was about 3–4 mm and the extension perturbation radius of fractures about 400 mm. In addition, the soil perturbation happened after gas explosion, and the soil perturbation coefficient was 50.11%, which was calculated by the gas-splitting soil fracture extension model of Murdoch LC. What’s more, the liquid fertilizer was sprayed in deep soil with no stoppage and diffused uniformly in the role of a high-pressure pump. This new designed machine abandoned the traditional operation mode of first ditching, then fertilization, and finally soil covering, while adopted the new operation mode of gas explosion subsoiling and fertilizer injection. Therefore, the tree roots were not easily damaged and the fertilizer was evenly distributed, which was conducive to the nutrient absorption of roots in growth. The work efficiency was 0.048 hm2/h at least. What’s more, with simple operation and stable performance, the new designed machine can meet the agronomic requirements of orchard, garden, and city greening fertilization.

【Keywords】 optimization; design; agricultural machinery; gas explosion subsoiling; fertigation; pneumatic chipping hammer exciting; hydraulic boosting; PLC;

【DOI】

【Funds】 National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0700903) Three New Projects Jiangsu Agricultural Machinery (NJ2017-11)

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This Article

ISSN:1002-6819

CN: 11-2047/S

Vol 33, No. 24, Pages 35-43

December 2017

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 0 Introduction
  • 1 Overall structure and working principle
  • 2 Design of subsoiling and fertilizer injection mechanism
  • 3 PLC design
  • 4 Field experiment
  • 5 Conclusions
  • References