Yield and physical characteristics analysis of domestic solid waste in rural areas of China and its disposal proposal

HAN Zhiyong1,2,3 FEI Yongqiang1,2 LIU Dan4 DAN Zeng5 ZHANG Yu1,2 SHI Guozhong3 WANG Jialei6 XIE Yanhua1,2

(1.State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection (Chengdu University of Technology), Chengdu , China 610059)
(2.State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Synergetic Control and Joint Remediation for Soil & Water Pollution (Chengdu University of Technology), Chengdu , China 610059)
(3.Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu , China 610041)
(4.Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu , China 610031)
(5.Science School of Tibet University, Lhasa , China 850002)
(6.China Urban Construction Design & Research Institute Co., Ltd., Beijing, China 100120)

【Abstract】In recent decades, a huge accumulation of domestic waste has caused serious environmental contamination, including negative impacts on human health in rural areas of China. Generally, collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste are usually considered as the most important stages of waste management, which are directly linked to waste generation and characteristics. So, it is difficult to optimize the design of the required infrastructures and facilities without an accurate estimation of the amounts and characteristics of domestic waste. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the characteristics of domestic waste in the rural areas of China in current. The main purpose of our work was to provide reliable background information as a reference and guidance for the source classification, recycling, and the treatment and disposal of domestic waste in rural areas of China. A total of 580 households in 59 villages of 6 provinces in West China were surveyed, and 128 questionnaires were reviewed, based on which, the generation and physical characteristics of domestic waste in rural areas of China were analyzed via statistic method and the difference between different regions, between urban and rural areas and between China and other countries were investigated. The results showed that the sources of domestic solid waste in rural areas of China mainly included kitchen waste, daily consumption (such as packages, residues and obsoleted daily goods), cleaning from public areas and agricultural production. The generation rate of rural domestic waste was 0.034–3.000 kg/(per capita·day) in different regions with the median of 0.521 kg/(per capita·day). It was much lower than the generation rate in cities and other developed countries. The total generation reached up to 148 million tons in 2014 in rural areas of China. The rural domestic waste showed the characteristics of wide range of sources, low generation rate, high volume, good compressibility, rapid growth and significant regional differences. Rural domestic waste was mainly composed of kitchen waste, dust/dirt, plastics and rubbers, as well as papers with a cumulative proportion of 83.61%. The composition of the rural domestic waste differed significantly from regions. The content of plastic/rubber gradually decreased from south to north in China; on the contrary, the dust/dirt waste increased. In recent decades, the contents of kitchen waste, paper, plastic/rubber increased with time but the contents of dust/dirt waste, brick/ceramic, wood and glass decreased. It is because the composition of domestic waste in the rural areas was gradually becoming similar with that of municipal solid waste in the city. However, it still had lower contents of kitchen waste and metals and higher contents of dust/dirt waste compared with those in cities. The bulk density of the domestic waste was 40–650 kg/m3 with average of 263 kg/m3. Moreover, the compressibility of the rural domestic solid waste was very good. Based on the outcome of this research, compressed garbage trucks and transfer stations are suggested in the countryside where the centralized treatment and disposal in the local county has been developed. Furthermore, sorting collection is recommended to separate kitchen waste and dust/dirt at the source and then treat them on site. These recommendations can greatly relieve the loads of waste collection, transportation and disposal and ensure financial viability.

【Keywords】 solid waste; rural areas; physical properties; solid waste yield; waste composition; bulk density; compressibility;

【DOI】

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ISSN:1002-6819

CN:11-2047/S

Vol 33, No. 15, Pages 1-14

August 2017

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Abstract

  • 0 Introduction
  • 1 Materials and methods
  • 2 Results and discussion
  • 3 Conclusions
  • References