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燃煤排放可吸入颗粒物中微量元素的分布特征

侯聪1 邵龙义1 王静2 刘君霞3 赵承美1 耿春梅2

(1.中国矿业大学(北京)地球科学与测绘工程学院, 北京 100083)
(2.中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012)
(3.中国循环经济协会, 北京 100037)

【摘要】燃煤排放被认为是大气颗粒物的主要来源之一,通过燃烧—稀释系统对采自织金、大同、东胜、银川、京西等地区的煤进行燃烧实验,采用ICP-MS(电感耦合等离子体质谱)研究燃煤排放的颗粒物中微量元素分布特征。结果表明,燃煤排放颗粒物主要富集Zn,Fe,Rb,Pb,Cu,Cr,Ti,Mn,Ba,Ni,As等微量元素,在颗粒物的水溶性组分中主要富集Zn,Rb,Pb,Cu,Ti,As,Ni等微量元素。微量元素Cs,Rb,Cd,Tl,Sb,Zn的水溶态组分在对应的微量元素总量中占比较高,说明这些元素主要以水可溶态的形式存在于燃煤排放的大气颗粒物中,而Fe在水溶组分中没有检测到,说明Fe主要以水不溶态存在于燃煤排放的大气颗粒物中。燃煤排放的颗粒物中的稀土元素以Sc,Ce,Nd,La为主。5种不同的煤燃烧排放PM10中微量元素的总量表现为:银川煤>织金煤>京西煤>大同煤>东胜煤,其中银川煤和京西煤燃烧排放PM10中微量元素总量较高的原因主要与其原煤的灰分含量较高有关,而织金煤燃烧排放PM10中微量元素的总量较高,主要与其原煤中的硫分较高有关。

【关键词】 燃煤排放;可吸入颗粒物;微量元素;分布特征;ICP—MS;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)资助项目(2013CB228503); 国家自然科学基金重大国际合作资助项目(41571130031);

Distribution of trace elements in inhalable particulates emitted from burning coal

HOU Cong1 SHAO Long-yi1 WANG Jing2 LIU Jun-xia3 ZHAO Cheng-mei1 GENG Chun-mei2

(1.College of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology (Beijing), Beijing, China 100083)
(2.Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, China 100012)
(3.China Association of Circular Economy, Beijing, China 100037)

【Abstract】Coal burning emission is one of the major sources of the airborne particulates in northern China. In this paper, the trace elements in inhalable particulates (PM10) collected from a combustion-dilution system by burning different coals in laboratory were studied by the ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The raw coals were collected from the coal mines in five different regions, namely Zhijin, Datong, Dongsheng, Yinchuan and Jingxi. The results indicated that the major elements Zn, Fe, Rb, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ti, Mn, Ba, Ni, and As were enriched, in a descending order, in the whole sample of PM10 derived from burning coal. The water-soluble trace elements in PM10were mainly Zn, Rb, Pb, Cu, Ti, As, Ni in a descending order of contents. The percentage of the water-soluble Cs, Rb, Cd, Tl, Sb, and Zn over the total individual trace element was relatively high. This indicated that these elements existed mostly in water-soluble state in PM10 derived from burning coal. Interestingly, Fe was not detected in the water-soluble fraction of PM10, indicating that Fe existed mainly as insoluble state in coal burning PM10. The rare earth elements in PM10 emitted from burning coal were dominated by Sc, Ce, Nd and La. The contents of the total analyzed trace elements (TATE) were the highest in the PM10 emitted from burning the Yinchuan Coal, followed by the PM10s from burning the Zhijin, Jingxi, Datong, and Dongsheng coals in a descending order. The higher levels of the TATE in PM10 emitted from burning the Yinchuan and Jingxi coals were due to the high ash contents in the raw coals, and the higher levels of TATE in the PM10 emitted from burning the Zhijin Coal were attributed to the high sulfur content in the raw coal.

【Keywords】 coal burning emission; inhalable particles/particulates; trace elements; distribution characteristics; ICP-MS;

【DOI】

【Funds】 Project sponsored by National Key Fundamental Research and Development Plan (973) (2013CB228503); National Natural Science Foundation for Important International Collaboration (41571130031) ;

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This Article

ISSN:0253-9993

CN: 11-2190/TD

Vol 41, No. 03, Pages 760-768

March 2016

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Sampling and experiment
  • 2 Results and analyses
  • 3 Conclusions
  • References