Multi-source information evaluation of mud and sand inrush disaster during the mining of deep-buried coal seam

GUO Xiaoming1,2,3 GUO Kang2,3 LIU Yingfeng2,3

(1.China Coal Research Institute, Beijing, China 100013)
(2.Xi’an Research Institute Co., Ltd., China Coal Technology and Engineering Group Corp., Xi’an, China 710077)
(3.Shaanxi Key Lab of Mine Water Hazard Prevention and Control, Xi’an, China 710077)

【Abstract】The mud–sand inrush during the mining of a deep-buried coal seam is caused by the disintegration of the mudstone in the coal seam roof when mudstone meets water. It is a comprehensive disaster due to concentrated underground mud–sand inrush under mine pressure. The occurrence of such a disaster is affected by many factors, such as aquifers, mine pressure, and geological structure. This paper took the Zhaojin coal mine in Huanglong coalfield as the study area and discussed the mechanism of the disaster. Then, the main controlling factors were identified, including water yield property of Luohe Formation aquifer, the distance between coal seam and Luohe Formation aquifer, the thickness of conglomerate in Yijun Formation, the thickness of variegated mudstone above the coal seam, the distance between coal roof and variegated mudstone, fault density, distribution of folds, and coal-seam mining thickness. The analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the weights of the main controlling factors, and the mathematical model for the risk assessment of the mud–sand inrush disaster in the coal seam roof was constructed. Then the thematic maps of the main controlling factors were drawn. Based on the information fusion method, the factors were superimposed, and finally, the disaster integrated zoning method of multi-source information fusion was formed. The research results show that the risk of disaster occurrence in ZF202 working face is high, which is in conformity to the occurrence of “4·25” major disaster, indicating that the risk assessment model is reasonable and that the zoning results can be used to guide mining of Zhaojin coal mine and prevention and control of mud–sand inrush disasters.

【Keywords】 deep-buried coal seam; mud–sand inrush; multi-source information fusion; main controlling factors; evaluation method; Jurassic coalfield; Zhaojin coal mine;


【Funds】 National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFC0804100) National Natural Science Foundation of China (41807221)

Download this article

(Translated by HAN R)


    [1] WEI Bingliang. Study on geological harm of blowing out water and bursting sand in Shenfu coal mining area [J]. Coal Geology of China, 1996, 8 (2): 28–30 (in Chinese).

    [2] FAN Limin, MA Xiongde, JIANG Hui, et al. Risk evaluation on water and sand inrush in ecologically fragile coal mine [J]. Journal of China Coal Society, 2016, 41 (3): 531–536 (in Chinese).

    [3] FAN Limin, MA Xiongde. Research progress of water inrush hazard in shallow buried coal seam mine [J]. Coal Science and Technology, 2016, 44 (1): 8–12 (in Chinese).

    [4] WANG Zihe. Sedimentary characterization of potential quick sand layers of Gudimao-Daxigou cross section in Jurassic coalfield of western China [D]. Xuzhou: China University of Mining and Technology, 2014 (in Chinese).

    [5] SUI Wanghua, CAI Guangtao, DONG Qinghong. Experimental research on critical percolation gradient of quicksand across overburden fissures due to coal mining near unconsolidated soil layers [J]. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 2007, 26 (10): 2084–2091 (in Chinese).

    [6] SUI Wanghua, DONG Qinghong. Variation of pore water pressure and its precursor significance for quicksand disasters due to mining near unconsolidated formations [J]. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 2008, 27 (9): 1908–1916 (in Chinese).

    [7] YANG Bin, YANG Tianhong, XU Zenghe, et al. Critical velocity of sand inrush and flow characteristics of water-sand in thick unconsolidated formations of mine in western China [J]. Journal of Northeastern University (Natural Science), 2018, 39 (11): 1648–1652 (in Chinese).

    [8] YANG Xin, XU Zenghe, YANG Tianhong, et al. Incipience condition and migration characteristics of aeolian-sand aquifer in a typical western mine [J]. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2018, 39 (1): 21–28 (in Chinese).

    [9] WU Qiang, HUANG Xiaoling, DONG Donglin, et al. “Three maps-two predictions” method to evaluate water bursting conditions on roof coal [J]. Journal of China Coal Society, 2000, 25 (1): 62–67 (in Chinese).

    [10] WU Qiang, FAN Zhenli, LIU Shouqiang, et al. Water-richness evaluation method of water-filled aquifer based on the principle of information fusion with GIS: Water-richness index method [J]. Journal of China Coal Society, 2011, 36 (7): 1124–1128 (in Chinese).

    [11] GUO Xiaoming, DONG Shuning, LIU Yingfeng, et al. Formation mechanism of mud and sand inrush disaster during the mining of deep-buried coal seam [J]. Journal of Mining and Safety Engineering, 2019, 36 (5): 889–897 (in Chinese).

    [12] WU Mouda. Analysis on water burst characteristics during united mining of multiple coal seams in Binchang mining area [J]. Coal Geology&Exploration, 2019, 47 (1): 133–137 (in Chinese).

    [13] WANG Dongdong, SHAO Longyi, LI Zhixue, et al. Middle Jurassic Series Yan’an Formation sequence stratigraphic framework and coal seam formation in Shaanxi Province [J]. Coal Geology of China, 2011, 23 (8): 22–27 (in Chinese).

    [14] CHEN Shaojie, XIA Zhiguo, GUO Weijia, et al. Research status and prospect of mining catastrophic response of rock mass under the influence of fault [J]. Coal Science and Technology, 2018, 46 (1): 20–27 (in Chinese).

    [15] WANG Shuangmei. A brief review of the methods determining the height of permeable fracture zone [J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2006, 39 (5): 126–128 (in Chinese).

    [16] ZHANG Tong, ZHAO Yixin, ZHU Guangpei, et al. A multi-coupling analysis of mining-induced pressure characteristics of shallow-depth coal face in Shendong mining area [J]. Journal of China Coal Society, 2016, 41 (S2): 287–296 (in Chinese).

    [17] GUO Jinyu, ZHANG Zhongbin, SUN Qingyun. Study and applications of analytic hierarchy process [J]. China Safety Science Journal, 2008, 18 (5): 148–153 (in Chinese).

    [18] XIONG Li, LIANG Liang, WANG Guohua. Method research on selection and valuation of numeric scale in analytic hierarchy process [J]. System Engineering Theory and Practice, 2005, 25 (3): 72–79 (in Chinese).

    [19] ZHANG Yanbo, LIANG Peng, LIU Xiangxin. An experimental study of predicting rock burst in granitic roadway based on multi-parameter normalization [J]. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2016, 37 (1): 96–104 (in Chinese).

    [20] WU Qiang, GUO Xiaoming, SHEN Jianjun, et al. Risk assessment of water inrush from aquifers underlying the Gushuyuan coal mine, China [J]. Mine Water and the Environment, 2017, 36 (1): 96–103.

    [21] WU Qiang, XU Ke, ZHANG Wei. Further research on “three maps-two predictions” method for prediction on coal seam roof water bursting risk [J]. Journal of China Coal Society, 2016, 41 (6): 1341–1347 (in Chinese).

This Article


CN: 61-1155/P

Vol 48, No. 01, Pages 113-119+128

February 2020


Article Outline


  • 1 Geological and hydrogeological conditions of the research area
  • 2 Formation mechanism and key factors of mud–sand inrush
  • 3 Risk assessment model of mud–sand inrush
  • 4 Conclusions
  • References