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从当前拉美左翼执政困境看其发展前景

张慧玲1

(1.北京大学外国语学院西葡语系)

【摘要】20世纪末以来,巴西、委内瑞拉、阿根廷等10多个拉美国家的中左翼力量先后通过选举上台执政,拉美政局呈现出“左强右弱”的态势,同期拉美经济也进入平稳快速增长期。但近年来,伴随世界经济形势低迷,拉美地区经济下行压力增大,拉美主要执政左翼力量或选举失利乃至下野,或面临经济下滑和社会矛盾激化等困境。这既缘于全球和地区经济不振等现实原因,也与拉美左翼自身建设和处于对发展道路的探索阶段等因素密不可分,比如拉美左翼未能真正找到新自由主义的替代方案,资本主义体制限制了拉美左翼的变革,左翼政党自身党建薄弱且未能妥善应对民生诉求和民意变化等。与此同时,也不能忽视美国对拉美的战略调整对地区左右翼力量对比带来的深远影响。从当前拉美左翼执政困境判断拉美政党政治已由“左倾”向“右摆”为时尚早,但各国左翼亟待审时度势、整顿调整,才能重整旗鼓、持续发展。此外,目前拉美左右翼力量对比变化对地区一体化进程的影响值得密切关注。

【关键词】 拉美政治;拉美左翼;民主治理;执政困境;

【DOI】

‍Leftist governments in Latin America: challenges and prospects

ZHANG Huiling1

(1.Department of Spanish and Portuguese Language and Literature, School of Foreign Languages, Peking University)

【Abstract】Since the start of this millennium, center-left political parties have gained ruling power by winning elections in over ten Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Venezuela and Argentina. It is noticeable that the political axis of the region has moved towards the left. In the past decade, regional countries witnessed a strong economic growth and a remarkable social development. Recently, due to increasing downward economic pressure, leftist governments were facing challenges from widespread discontent. Intensifying social conflicts and rising election pressure in the region caused major election losses of some leftist ruling parties. It can be concluded that the leftist governments in the region had not yet found an alternative to neoliberalism. The capitalist system imposed heavy restrictions on their capacity to push political and economic reforms. Regarding the parties themselves, institutional building is weak. It also needs to be pointed out that the change of the U.S. policy toward Latin America has brought adverse impacts on leftist governments and parties. However, it is too early to draw the conclusion that the region is moving rightward to see a comeback of rightist parties.

【Keywords】 Latin American politics; leftist; democratic governance; ruling predicament;

【DOI】

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This Article

ISSN:1002-6649

CN: 11-1160/C

Vol 38, No. 02, Pages 19-34+154-155

April 2016

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Currently forces of the Left in Latin America generally suffer a ruling predicament
  • 2 Challenges to leftist ruling in Latin America
  • 3 Realistic and historical reasons for the Latin American leftist ruling plight
  • 4 Several reflections on the prospects of Latin American leftist
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