Poverty Reduction and Governability:The Brazilian Case

Su Zhenxing1

(1.Institute of Latin American Studies of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, BeiJing 100007)

【Abstract】In the mid-1990 s,while seeking to enhance economic growth rate,the Cardoso government of Brazil initiated a social reform to tackle deeply rooted problems of unequal income distribution and social polarization.It took a variety of measures proved to be effective to improve social conditions.Based on the achievement,the Lula government continued to implement ambitious anti-poverty programs on condition that long-term sustainable growth would not be impaired.As a result,there has been a marked decline in inequality for the country.The social policy in Brazil is aimed at gaining an inclusive development,featured by top-level design,sustainability and policy-legitimacy and fully reflecting Brazil's improved govemability.

【Keywords】 Brazil; income distribution ; anti-poverty ; inclusive development ; social governance;

【DOI】

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(Translated by Fanyi 2)

    Footnote

    [1]. [1]CEPAL,Panorama Social de America Latina,Santiago de Chile,2013,p.197. [^Back]

    [2]. [1] According to the statistics of Institute of Applied Economic Research in Brazil, the population in poverty accounted for 45.7% of the total population and the population in extreme poverty for 23.8% during the period of 1977–1979. From 1993 to 1994, the two rates respectively rose up to 64.5% and 29.8%. Brazil’s Gini coefficient was 0.639 in 1989 and was still at a high level of 0.595 in 1999. Quoted from Vilmar E. Faria, Reformas institucionales y coordinación gubernamental en la política de protección social de Brasil, en Rivista de la CEPAL, No. 77, agosto de 2002, pp. 11–12. [^Back]

    [3]. [2]Renato Baumann,"Brasil en los Anos Noventa;Una Economia en Transici6n",en Revista de la CEPAL,No.73,abril de 2001,p.159. [^Back]

    [4]. [1] For the social development strategy of the Cardoso administration, see Vilmar E. Faria, “Reformas Constitucionales y Coordinación Gubernamental en la Politica de Protección Social de Brasil”, en revista de la CEPAL, No. 77, agosto de 2002. [^Back]

    [5]. [2]Paulo Renta Souza,"Educaci6n y Desarrollo en Brasil,1995-2000",en Revista de la CEPAL,No.73,abril de 2001,pp.71-72. [^Back]

    [6]. [1] For the data cited in this paragraph, see Vilmar E. Faria. Reformas Constitucionales y Coordinación Gubernamental en la Politica de Protección Social de Brasil, en Revista de la CEPAL, No. 77, agosto de 2002, pp. 21–23. [^Back]

    [7]. [2] Santiso, J., et al. Practicality of Latin America’s Economic Policy. Gao, J., et al. (trans.) Beijing: World Affairs Press, 93 (2009). [^Back]

    [8]. [3]Marcela Nogueira Ferrario,"Los Efectos del Programa Bolsa Famllia en el Consumo Familiar",en Revista de la CEPAL,No.112,abrilde2014,p.153. [^Back]

    [9]. [4] Filho, F. in Zheng, B. (eds.) Surmounting the Middle Income Trap: the Main Issues for Brazil. Beijing: Economic & Management Publishing House, 105–106 (2013). [^Back]

    [10]. [1] Ibid., 105–106. [^Back]

    [11]. [1][2] Ibid., 95–96 [^Back]

    [12]. [3]AndréSinger,Os Sentidos do Lulismo:Reforma Gradual e Pacto Conservador,Companhia das Letras,San Pablo,2012,p.13. [^Back]

    [13]. [1]Marcelo Neri,A Nova Classe Media:O Lado Brilhante da Base da Pirámide,Saraiva,San Pablo,2012,pp.17-20. [^Back]

    [14]. [2]Jean Tible,“Una Nueva Clase Media en Brasil?”,en Nueva Sociedad,No.243,Buenos Aires,Enero-Febrero,pp.8-10. [^Back]

    [15]. [3]Luis F.López-Calva,Guillermo Cruces,Samantha Lach y Eduardo Ortiz-Juárez,“Clases Medias y Vulnerabilidad a la Pobreza:Reflexiones desde América Latina”,en El Trimestre Económico,Vol.LXXXI(2),No.322,abril-junio de 2014,México,pp.281-307. [^Back]

    [16]. [4] See fn. 9, at 107. s for Brazil. Beijing: Economic & Management Publishing House, 105–106 (2013). [^Back]

This Article

ISSN:1002-6649

CN: 11-1160/C

Vol 37, No. 01, Pages 9-15+79

February 2015

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Social development strategy of the Cardoso administration
  • 2 Social policies of the government of Workers’ Party and the achievements
  • 3 Analyses on related issues
  • Footnote