Research Status and High-strength Pre-stressed Primary (type) Support System for Tunnels with Large Deformation Under Squeezing Conditions

LI Zhijun1 GUO Xinxin2 MA Zhenwang3 YANG Tielun4 XU Jianqiang5

(1.The 2nd Engineering Co., Ltd. of China Railway Tunnel Group, Sanhe, Hebei, China 065201)
(2.Key Laboratory of Transportation Tunnel Engineering, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China 610031)
(3.China Design Group Co., Ltd., Nanjing, Jiangsu, China 210014)
(4.Gansu Changda Highway Co., Ltd., Lanzhou, Gansu, China 730030)
(5.POWERCHINA Huadong Engineering Corporation Limited, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China 311122)

【Abstract】Large deformation is a key problem in tunnel engineering. In this paper, the definition, classification and mechanism, judgment criteria, control theory and measures for large deformation of surrounding rock in China and abroad are analyzed and summarized. Meanwhile, the control philosophy of large squeezing deformation is introduced, and suggestion that full play should be paid to the role of the support system in improving the load-bearing capacity of the surrounding rock as much as possible rather than passive load-bearing is put forward. Furthermore, the key research trend and breakthrough point of the large squeezing deformation are discussed, and the high-strength pre-stressed primary (type) support system and its components and key points are proposed by emphasizing its core importance in the support system. Finally, it is verified by means of field test that the proposed high-strength pre-stressed primary (type) support system can better control the displacement of the large deformation surrounding rock and shorten the time for the deformation to become stable. The research results can provide a feasible new concept and support technology system for the control of the large deformation of tunnels of the same type.

【Keywords】 tunnel; surrounding rock large deformation; support theory; support system; pre-stressed anchor;


【Funds】 Gansu Science and Technology Program (19ZD2GA005)

Download this article


    [1] WANG Bo, GUO Xinxin, HE Chuan, et al. Analysis on the characteristics and development trends of the support technology of high ground stress tunnels in China [J]. Modern Tunnelling Technology, 2018, 55 (5): 1.

    [2] YAN Changgen, LUO Xin, WANG Kai, et al. Deformation and pressure characteristics of three-tier support structure in large deformation bias highway tunnel with deep buried softrock [J]. China Journal of Highway and Transport, 2016, 29 (2): 98.

    [3] LI Guoliang, LI Ning. Discussion of tunneling in squeezed surrounding rock [J]. Modern Tunnelling Technology, 2018, 55 (1): 1.

    [4] Editorial Department of China Journal of Highway and Transport. Review on China’s tunnel engineering research: 2015 [J]. China Journal of Highway and Transport, 2015, 28 (5): 1.

    [5] ZHANG Mei, HE Zhijun, ZHANG Minqing, et al. Design and construction technologies to control the deformation of a soft rock tunnel with high ground stress [J]. Modern Tunnelling Technology, 2012 (6): 13.

    [6] ZHANG Zhidao. Treatment of large deformation of support in the construction of Jiazhuqing Tunnel [J]. World Tunnel, 1997 (1): 7.

    [7] WANG Rui. Study on large deformation mechanism and prevention measures of surrounding rock in Zhegushan Tunnel of National Highway 317 [D]. Chengdu: Chengdu University of Technology, 2003.

    [8] ZHAO De’an, LI Guoliang, CHEN Zhimin, et al. Three dimensional regression analysis of multivariate geostress field of Wushaoling Tunnel [J]. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 2009, 28 (S1): 2687.

    [9] ZHANG Xuzhen. Large deformation treatment technology of Guanjiao Tunnel [J]. Journal of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University (Natural Science), 2011, 24 (1): 17.

    [10] HUANG Mingli, ZHAO Jianming, TAN Zhongsheng, et al. Analysis of the deformation and mechanical characteristics of the surrounding rock-lining structure of the Muzhailing Tunnel [J]. Modern Tunnelling Technology, 2016, 53 (6): 89.

    [11] SHI Yujing. Study on supporting structures of soft rock tunnel with large deformation and small distance [D]. Lanzhou: Lanzhou Jiaotong University, 2014.

    [12] CUI Guangyao, QI Jiasuo, WANG Mingsheng. Field test study on large deformation control of surrounding rock of cleaved basalt tunnel [J]. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2018, 39 (S2): 231.

    [13] WANG Bo, WANG Jie, WU Dexing, et al. Discussion on application of yielding supporting technology in large deformation tunnel in soft rock [J]. Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development, 2015, 32 (5):115.

    [14] WANG Bo, WANG Jie, WU Dexing, et al. Study on application of yielding supporting system for large deformation in soft rock highway tunnel [J]. Journal of Railway Science and Engineering, 2016, 13 (10): 1985.

    [15] KANG Hongpu, LIN Jian, WU Yongzheng. High pretensioned stress and intensive cable bolting technology set in full section and application in entry affected by dynamic pressure [J]. Journal of China Coal Society, 2009, 34 (9): 1153.

    [16] KANG Hongpu, WANG Jinhua, LIN Jian. Case studies of rock bolting in coal mine roadways [J]. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 2010, 29 (4): 649.

    [17] TERZAGHI Karl. Rock defects and loads in tunnel supports [C]//Rock Tunneling With Steel Supports. Youngstown: The Commercial Shearing and Stamping Co., 2004: 17.

    [18] BARLA Giovanni. Squeezing rocks in tunnels [J]. ISRM News Journal, 1995, 3 (4): 44.

    [19] JIANG Yun, LI Yonglin, LI Tianbin, et al. Study of the classified system of types and mechanism of great distortion in tunnel and underground engineering [J]. Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation, 2004, 15 (4): 46.

    [20] WANG Chenghu, SHA Peng, HU Yuanfang, et al. Study of squeezing deformation problems during tunneling [J]. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2011, 32 (S2): 143.

    [21] YU Yu. Serious deformation of surrounding rock in squeezing ground [J]. World Tunnel, 1998 (1): 46.

    [22] WANG Jianyu, HU Yuanfang, LIU Zhiqiang. Tunneling in squeezing ground with yielding support [J]. Modern Tunnelling Technology, 2012, 49 (3): 9.

    [23] XIE Baojin. Study on the mechanism and control of large deformation instability of tunnel surrounding rock [D]. Fuxin: Liaoning Technical University, 2017.

    [24] SHE Shigang, LIN Peng. Some developments and challenging issues in rock engineering field in China [J]. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 2014 (3): 433.

    [25] AYDAN Ö, AKAGI T, KAWAMOTO T. The squeezing potential of rocks around tunnels: Theory and prediction [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 1993, 26 (2): 137.

    [26] XU Linsheng, LI Yonglin, CHENG Chongguo. Judging of the deformation-cracking type and grade about surrounding rock of highway tunnel [J]. Journal of Chongqing Jiaotong University, 2002, 21 (2): 16.

    [27] ZHANG Zhidao. Discussion and study on large deformation of tunnel in squeezing ground [J]. Modern Tunnelling Technology, 2003, 40 (2): 5.

    [28] HOEK Evert. Big tunnels in bad rock [J]. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 2001, 127 (9): 726.

    [29] ZHENG Yingren, WANG Yongfu. Evolution of rock mass pressure theory and researches on tunnel failure mechanism [J]. Tunnel Construction, 2013, 33 (6): 423.

    [30] WANG Haizhou. Study of the safe step between tunnel face and secondary lining in tunnel construction [D]. Lanzhou: Lanzhou Jiaotong University, 2015.

    [31] LI Bin, QI Taiyue, GAO Bo, et al. An overview of ADECO-RS approach [J]. Highway Tunnel, 2009 (2): 1.

    [32] SHEN Huimin. Recommendation of Norway tunnel construction method NTM [J]. Journal of Railway Engineering Society, 1995 (3): 40.

    [33] FENG Yu. Study of the supporting of soft-rock roadway in China [J]. Ground Pressure and Strata Control, 1990, 7 (2): 42.

    [34] DONG Fangting, SONG Hongwei, GUO Zhihong, et al. Theory of roadway surrounding rock loose circle support [J]. Journal of China Coal Society, 1994 (1): 21.

    [35] FANG Zulie. The characteristics of the pressure zone and the maintenance theory of the primary and secondary bearing areas [C]//The Present Situation and Prospect of Soft Rock Engineering Technology at the Turn of the Century. Beijing: China Coal Industry Publishing House, 1999: 48.

    [36] LI Shulin, SANG Yufa. Stress control technique and its application [J]. Rook and Sole Mechanics, 1997, 18 (1): 90.

    [37] HE Manchao, JING Haihe, SUN Xiaoming. Research progress of soft rock engineering geomechanics in China coal mine [J]. Journal of Engineering Geology, 2000 (1): 46.

    [38] WANG Wei. Construction and test analysis of XinchengziTunnel with small spacing [J]. Railway Construction Technology, 2017 (12): 88.

    [39] QI Xian. Construction technology study on large deformation of soft rock in Muzhailing Tunnel [J]. Railway Construction Technology, 2018 (3): 86.

    [40] KANG Hongpu. Sixty years development and prospects of rock bolting technology for underground coal mine roadways in China [J]. Journal of China University of Mining & Technology, 2016, 45 (6): 1071.

    [41] KANG Hongpu, YANG Jinghe, JIANG Pengfei. Tests and analysis on mechanical properties for cable holts [J]. Coal Science and Technology, 2015, 43 (6): 29.

This Article


CN: 44-1745/U

Vol 40, No. 06, Pages 755-782

June 2020


Article Outline


  • 0 Introduction
  • 1 Status of researches on large deformation
  • 2 Control theory and focus of large deformation caused by squeezing
  • 3 High-strength pre-stressed primary support system
  • 4 Conclusions and discussion
  • References