CAFE simulation of directional solidification structure of low nickel austenitic stainless steel

QIN Chen1 LI Zhao2 ZHAO Liping1 JIANG Yajun1 CHEN Lichao1 ZHANG Huimin1 TIAN Zhihua1

(1.School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology , Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China 014010)
(2.Rare Earth Steel Plate Company, Baotou Steel Group, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China 014010)
【Knowledge Link】austenitic stainless steel

【Abstract】In this paper, through the secondary development of ProCAST & CAFE software, the dynamic boundary conditions of solidification process are established; the temperature field and solid fraction in the directional solidification process of low nickel austenitic stainless steel are simulated; the effect of the withdrawing rate on the solidification microstructure is discussed. The results shows that the withdrawing rate is in the range of 15–200 μm/s; as the solidification rate increases, the isotherm becomes dense, gummy zone narrowing. Additionally, as the solidification rate increases, the primary dendrite arm gradually refines and the secondary dendrite arm becomes dense and coarse. In addition, as the withdrawing rate increases in the range from 15 to 200 μm/s, the lateral heat dissipation of the edge of the casting is gradually smaller than that of the central longitudinal heat dissipation, and the axial deviation of the dendrites is reduced from 27.66° to 25.964°. At the same time, the comparative analysis simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results, and the simulation calculation process is more reasonable.

【Keywords】 liquid metal cooling; austenitic stainless steel; numerical simulation; microstructure;


【Funds】 Natural Science Foundation Project of Inner Mongolia (2014MS0519)

Download this article


    [1] ZHANG S T. Steel materials manual [M]. Beijing: China Standards Press, 2001 (in Chinese).

    [2] ZHANG C X, WANG H F, ZHANG S R, et al. Strategic study on green development of Chinese steel industry [J]. Iron and Steel, 2015, 50 (10): 2–7 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    [3] ZHAO L P, HE J X, ZHANG H M, et al. Study on directional solidification initial growth zone of low nickel austenitic stainless steel [J]. Hot Working Technology, 2016, 45 (15): 104–106 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    [4] HUANG W D, ZHOU Y H. Interface morphology transitions during directional solidification in a transparent model alloy [J]. Acta Metallurgica Sinica, 1991, 27 (2): 86–91 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    [5] DONG H B, JI Y Y, ZHU J, et al. Preparation and solidification characteristic of in situ directionally solidified eutectic Al11La3/Al composite [J]. Acta Metallurgica Sinica, 1993, 29 (3): 102–106 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    [6] YU W, LIU W, ZHAO L P, et al. Study on the directional solidification structure of austenite stainless steels of rare earth micro-alloy with low nickel [J]. Journal of Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, 2014, 33 (2): 165–166 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    [7] ZHANG P, HOU H, ZHAO H Y, et al. Microstructure simulation during directional solidification of nickel-based alloy based on CAFE model [J]. The Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals, 2016, 26 (4): 782–789 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    [8] LU Y Z, XI H J, SHEN J, et al. Experimental and simulation study of directional solidification process for industrial gas turbine blades prepared By liquid metal cooling [J]. Acta Metallurgica Sinica, 2015, 51 (5): 603–611 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    [9] MILLER J D, POLLOCK T M. The effect of processing conditions on heat transfer during directional solidification via the bridgman and liquid metal cooling processes [J]. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2014, 45: 411–424.

    [10] WANG N, LIU L, GAO S F. Simulation of grain selection during solidification of Ni base single crystal superalloy in spiral grain selector [J]. Rare Metal Materials And Engineering, 2013, 42 (12): 2259–2262 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    [11] KURA W, GIOVANOLA B, TRIVEDI R. Theory of microstructure development during rapid solidification [J]. Acta Metall, 1986, 34 (5): 823.

    [12] ELLIOTT A J, POLLOCK T M. Thermal analysis of the brigman and liquid-metal-cooled directional solidification investment casting process [J]. Metal Mater Trans A, 2007, 38 (4): 871–882.

    [13] PENG L G, ZHANG D H, GUO T, et al. Emissivity indirect-measurement and analysis for hot rolled strip [J]. Journal of Northeastern University (Natural Science), 2013, 34 (8): 1119–1122 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    [14] BRUNDIDGE C L, MILLER J D, POLLOCK T M. Development of dendritic structure in the liquid-metalcooled, directional-solidification process [J]. Metal Mater Trans A, 2011, 42 (9): 2723–2732.

    [15] WANG Z D, YUAN G, WANG G D, et al. Heat transfer coefficient of hot rolled strip during ultra fast cooling process [J]. Iron and Steel, 2006, 41 (7): 54–56 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    [16] FU H Z, GUO J J, LIU L, et al. Advanced Material Directional Solidification [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2008 (in Chinese).

    [17] GUO R F, LIU L, LI Y F, et al. Numerical simulation of temperature field and grain texture during casting single crystal superalloy DD403 with liquid metal cooling [J]. Foundry, 2014, 63 (2): 145–151 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    [18] LIU X F, LI Q S, DU W D, et al. Influence of solidification rare on solid–liquid interface in unidirectional solidification microstructure of austenitic stainless steel [J]. Materials Science & Technology, 2009, 17 (1): 111–117 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    [19] CHEN R, XU Q Y, LIU B C. Experimental and simulation of primary dendrite spacing in directional solidification of Al-7Si-0.36Mg alloy [J]. The Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals, 2015, 25 (10): 2614–2622 (in Chinese with English abstract).

This Article


CN: 11-3159/V

Vol 40, No. 02, Pages 8-15

April 2020


Article Outline



  • 1 Simulation method and principle
  • 2 Simulation results and discussion
  • 3 Conclusions
  • References