(2.中国地质科学院地球物理地球化学勘查研究所, 廊坊 065000)
(3.中国地质调查局地球表层碳-汞地球化学循环重点实验室, 廊坊 065000)
(4.成都理工大学地球科学学院, 成都 610059)
(5.云南地质调查院, 昆明 650216)
【摘要】西南地区土壤重金属具有天然的高背景属性，在重金属高背景区开展生态风险评价和识别重金属潜在来源具有重要意义．以往工作主要以区域尺度的调查工作为主，调查精度难以满足空间规划和自然资源管理的需求，迫切需要在乡镇尺度上进行生态风险评价．云南省宣威市热水镇是典型的碳酸盐岩覆盖区，重金属来源复杂，潜在生态风险较高．本文在热水镇采集土壤表层样品(0～20 cm) 1 092件，分析表层土壤中8种重金属(Cd、Cr、As、Hg、Pb、Cu、Zn和Ni)含量，采用统计学、地理信息系统、地累积指数、生态风险指数和正定矩阵因子分析模型(PMF)等方法开展生态风险评价和重金属源解析．研究发现，土壤中重金属Cd、Cr、Cu、Hg、Ni和Zn含量平均值和中位数均超过云南省土壤背景值，Cd、Cr、Cu和Ni平均含量均超过《土壤环境质量农用地土壤污染风险管控标准》(GB 15618-2018)规定的筛选值．地累积指数结果表明，研究区表层土壤污染最严重的是Cu，其次是Cr和Cd．土壤重金属Cr、As、Pb、Cu、Zn和Ni多以残渣态存在，多来自于地质背景，生物有效性较低，Hg的潜在有效组分较高，但是Hg全量较低，污染风险较小．Cd生物有效性比例较高，易于进入土壤溶液并被农作物吸收，是研究区污染风险最高的重金属元素．土壤重金属潜在生态风险指数统计结果显示，生态风险较低、中等生态危害和强生态危害比例分别为44.23%、54.40%和1.37%，无很强生态危害样品，贡献率最高的元素为Cd和Hg，贡献率分别为34.62%和34.33%.PMF结果显示研究区重金属来源包括人类日常活动来源、自然来源、煤矿开采及交通排放引起的综合污染源和农业生产来源，各种来源的贡献率分别占9.29%、53.67%、11.23%和25.81%.PMF可以有效识别和量化污染物来源，为政府部门进行土地规划提供重要的参考依据．
Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals at Township Scale in the High Background of Heavy Metals, Southwestern, China
(2.Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Langfang, China 065000)
(3.Key Laboratory of Geochemical Cycling of Carbon and Mercury in the Earth’s Critical Zone, China Geological Survey, Langfang, China 065000)
(4.College of Earth Sciences, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China 610059)
(5.Yunnan Institute of Geological Survey, Kunming, China 650216)
【Abstract】Heavy metals (HMs) are naturally occurring elements that have high natural background levels in the environment. Therefore, it is important to conduct ecological risk assessment and identify potential sources of HMs. In the past, studies were conducted at the regional scale. The accuracy of those studies could not meet the needs of spatial planning and natural resource management. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct ecological risk assessment at the township scale. In this study, 1 092 soil samples (from 0–20 cm depth) were collected in the town of Reshui, an area with high background levels of soil HMs with the parent material of carbonatite, which is commonly found in Southwest China. The town of Reshui is a multi-ecological risk superimposed area where the ecological risk is high. In this study, concentrations of HMs (Cd, Cr, As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni) in the topsoil were analyzed, and statistical analysis (SA), geographic information system (GIS) modeling, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis were performed. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were applied for the ecological risk assessment and quantification of the sources of the soil HMs. The mean values of HM concentrations in the topsoil were 18.1, 1.18, 174.1, 202.2, 0.09, 71.1, 34.9, and 167.2 mg·kg−1 for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively, which were considerably higher than the average background value (ABV) in soils in Yunnan Province except for As and Pb. The average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni exceeded the screening values specified in the Soil Environmental Quality Risk Control Standard for Soil Contamination of Agricultural Land (GB 15618–2018) by 5.82, 1.16, 4.04, and 1.02 times, respectively. The Igeo value showed that the major pollutant was Cu in the surface soil of the study area, followed by Cr, and Cd. Speciation analysis of HMs indicated that HMs(Cr, As, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni) mainly existed in the residual form, mostly from the geological background with low bioavailability. The potential effective components of Hg had higher levels, but the total amount of Hg and its pollution risk were lower. Cd had a high bioavailability ratio, was easy to enter the soil solution and be absorbed by crops, and was the HM with the highest pollution risk in the study area. The PERI showed that the proportions of low ecological risk, moderate risk, and high risk soil samples were 44.23%, 54.40%, and 1.37% of the total number of samples, respectively. Hg and Cd were the major sources of risk because of their high toxicity coefficient. The PMF analysis indicated that there were four major sources of HMs in the study area: human activity, natural sources, coal mining and traffic emissions, and agricultural sources with the risk contribution ratios of 9.29%, 53.67%, 11.23%, and 25.81%, respectively. The PMF analysis effectively quantified the ecological risk from these sources, providing a reference for further pollution control and prevention measures.
【Keywords】 soil heavy metal; ecological risk assessment; positive matrix factorization; source apportionment; high background area;
【Funds】 Geological Survey Project of China Geological Survey, the Ministry of Natural Resources of China (DD2016013, DD20190522);
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