基于乡镇尺度的西南重金属高背景区土壤重金属生态风险评价

张富贵1,2,3,4 彭敏1,2,3 王惠艳1,2,3 马宏宏1,2,3 徐仁廷1,2,3 成晓梦1,2,3 侯召雷5 陈子万4,5 李括1,2,3 成杭新1,2,3

(1.中国地质调查局土地质量地球化学调查评价研究中心, 廊坊 065000)
(2.中国地质科学院地球物理地球化学勘查研究所, 廊坊 065000)
(3.中国地质调查局地球表层碳-汞地球化学循环重点实验室, 廊坊 065000)
(4.成都理工大学地球科学学院, 成都 610059)
(5.云南地质调查院, 昆明 650216)

【摘要】西南地区土壤重金属具有天然的高背景属性,在重金属高背景区开展生态风险评价和识别重金属潜在来源具有重要意义.以往工作主要以区域尺度的调查工作为主,调查精度难以满足空间规划和自然资源管理的需求,迫切需要在乡镇尺度上进行生态风险评价.云南省宣威市热水镇是典型的碳酸盐岩覆盖区,重金属来源复杂,潜在生态风险较高.本文在热水镇采集土壤表层样品(0~20 cm) 1 092件,分析表层土壤中8种重金属(Cd、Cr、As、Hg、Pb、Cu、Zn和Ni)含量,采用统计学、地理信息系统、地累积指数、生态风险指数和正定矩阵因子分析模型(PMF)等方法开展生态风险评价和重金属源解析.研究发现,土壤中重金属Cd、Cr、Cu、Hg、Ni和Zn含量平均值和中位数均超过云南省土壤背景值,Cd、Cr、Cu和Ni平均含量均超过《土壤环境质量农用地土壤污染风险管控标准》(GB 15618-2018)规定的筛选值.地累积指数结果表明,研究区表层土壤污染最严重的是Cu,其次是Cr和Cd.土壤重金属Cr、As、Pb、Cu、Zn和Ni多以残渣态存在,多来自于地质背景,生物有效性较低,Hg的潜在有效组分较高,但是Hg全量较低,污染风险较小.Cd生物有效性比例较高,易于进入土壤溶液并被农作物吸收,是研究区污染风险最高的重金属元素.土壤重金属潜在生态风险指数统计结果显示,生态风险较低、中等生态危害和强生态危害比例分别为44.23%、54.40%和1.37%,无很强生态危害样品,贡献率最高的元素为Cd和Hg,贡献率分别为34.62%和34.33%.PMF结果显示研究区重金属来源包括人类日常活动来源、自然来源、煤矿开采及交通排放引起的综合污染源和农业生产来源,各种来源的贡献率分别占9.29%、53.67%、11.23%和25.81%.PMF可以有效识别和量化污染物来源,为政府部门进行土地规划提供重要的参考依据.

【关键词】 土壤重金属; 生态风险评价; 正定因子矩阵分析(PMF); 源解析; 重金属高背景;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 自然资源部中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD2016013,DD20190522)

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This Article

ISSN:0250-3301

CN: 11-1895/X

Vol 41, No. 09, Pages 4197-4209

September 2020

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摘要

  • 1 研究区概况
  • 2 材料与方法
  • 3 结果与讨论
  • 4 结论
  • 参考文献