Gridded Atmospheric Emission Inventory of PCDD/Fs in China

CHEN Lu-lu1 HUANG Tao1 CHEN Kai-jie1 SONG Shi-jie1 GAO Hong1 MA Jian-min1,2

(1.Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Prediction and Control, Gansu Province, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China 730000)
(2.Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Ministry of Education, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China 100871)

【Abstract】PCDD/Fs emission inventory is the basis for PCDD/Fs control, research on environmental fate behavior, and health risk assessment. In the present study, based on officially released PCDD/Fs emissions inventory for each industry in China in 2004, we estimated atmospheric PCDD/Fs emissions by sector in various provinces in 2016 by combining the emission intensity in the “Identification and Quantification of PCDD/Fs Emission Standards Toolkit” released by the United Nations Environment Program( UNEP) in 2013. Subsequently, using different gridding data for various sectors as surrogate data, we established atmospheric gridded emission inventory( 1/4° × 1/4° latitude by longitude) for PCDD/Fs in China. Finally, the uncertainty of PCDD/Fs emission inventory was analyzed. Results show that the atmospheric emissions of PCDD/Fs in China in 2016 were 10 366 g, which was about two times higher than that in 2004. From the perspective of the emission sector, metal smelting is the largest emitter of PCDD/Fs in China, which released 5 333 g, followed by waste incineration (2 469 g), heating and power generation (1 290 g), and mineral production (933 g). These four sectors accounted for 97% of China’s total PCDD/Fs emissions. In spatial terms, China’s atmospheric PCDD/Fs emissions are mainly concentrated in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta regions. PCDD/Fs emissions from the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Yangtze River Delta regions originate mainly from steel smelting, and that from the Pearl River Delta region is mainly due to waste incineration.

【Keywords】 China; dioxin; atmospheric; gridded; emission inventory; emission characteristics;


【Funds】 National Natural Science Foundation of China (41877507, 41503089, 41671460)

Download this article


    [1] Li M F. Preliminary study on pollution characteristics and source analysis of POPs from PM2.5 in Hangzhou [D] . Hangzhou: Zhejiang University Of Technology, 2015 (in Chinese).

    [2] Lin H P, Yu Y J, Li Q, et al. Research progress on the dioxin’s toxicity and its effect on human health [J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2009, 32(9): 93–97 (in Chinese).

    [3] Liu J S, Liu W P, Gong H P, et al. Source identification for PCDD/Fs in ambient air and soil in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator [J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2010, 30(10): 1950–1956 (in Chinese).

    [4] Zhang T T, Fiedler H, Yu G, et al. Emissions of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from open burning of municipal solid waste from developing countries [J]. Chemosphere, 2011, 84(7): 994–1001.

    [5] Zhang X L, Lu Y, Jian C, et al. Atmospheric Emission of PCDD/Fs from modern dry processing cement kilns with preheating in the Southwest Area, China [J]. Environmental Science, 2014, 35(1): 35–40 (in Chinese).

    [6] Sun P C, Li X L, Cheng G et al. Preliminary investigation on emission of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs through flue gas from coke plants in China [J]. Environmental Science, 2014, 35(7): 2515–2519 (in Chinese).

    [7] Deng Y Y, Peng P A, Ren M, et al. Polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins and dibenzofurans in Pearl River Tunnel, Guangzhou [J]. Environmental Chemistry, 2008, 27(1): 110–113 (in Chinese).

    [8] Cao H Y, Tao S, Xu F L, et al. Multimedia fate model for hexachlorocyclohexane in Tianjin, China [J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2004, 38(7): 2126–2132.

    [9] Morales L, Dachs J, González-Gaya B, et al. Background concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the global oceanic atmosphere [J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2014, 48(17): 10198–10207.

    [10] Wania F, Mackay D. Global chemical fate ofα-hexachlorocyclohexane. 2. Use of a global distribution model for mass balancing, source apportionment, and trend prediction [J] . Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1999, 18(7): 1400–1407.

    [11] Shen H T, Ding G Q, Wu Y N, et al. Polychlorinated dibenzop-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from Zhejiang, China [J]. Environment International, 2012, 42: 84–90.

    [12] Macdonald R W, Barrie L A, Bidleman T F, et al. Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic: 5 years of progress in understanding sources, occurrence and pathways [J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2000, 254(2–3): 93–234.

    [13] Van Jaarsveld J A, Van Pul W A J, De Leeuw F A A M. Modelling transport and deposition of persistent organic pollutants in the European region [J]. Atmospheric Environment, 1997, 31(7): 1011–1024.

    [14] Armitage J M, Mac Leod M, Cousins I T. Modeling the global fate and transport of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanoate (PFO) emitted from direct sources using a multispecies mass balance model [J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2009, 43(4): 1134–1140.

    [15] Wania F, Mackay D, Li Y F, et al. Global chemical fate of α-hexachlorocyclohexane. 1. Evaluation of a global distribution model [J]. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1999, 18(7): 1390–1399.

    [16] EEA (European Environment Agency). European Union emission inventory report 1990–2010 under the UNECE Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (LRTAP) [R] . Copenhagen: European Environment Agency, 2012.

    [17] Cohen M D, Draxler R R, Artz R, et al. Modeling the atmospheric transport and deposition of PCDD/F to the Great Lakes [J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2002, 36(22): 4831–4845.

    [18] Zhou Z H, Deng Y, Tan Q W, et al. Emission inventory and characteristics of anthropogenic air pollutant sources in the Sichuan Province [J]. Environmental Science, 2018, 39(12): 5344–5358 (in Chinese).

    [19] Duan W J, Lang J L, Cheng S Y, et al. Air pollutant emission inventory from iron and steel industry in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its impact on PM2.5 [J]. Environmental Science, 2018, 39(4): 1445–1454 (in Chinese).

    [20] Sun X B, Liao C H, Zeng W T, et al. Emission inventory of atmospheric pollutants and VOC species from crop residue burning in Guangdong province [J]. Environmental Science, 2018, 39(9): 3995–4001 (in Chinese).

    [21] Zheng M H, Sun Y Z, Liu W B. 中国二噁英类持久性有机污染物排放清单研究 [M] Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, 2008 (in Chinese).

    [22] Wu X C, Zhao L J, Zhang Y X, et al. Primary air pollutant emissions and future prediction of iron and steel industry in China [J]. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 2015, 15(4): 1422–1432.

    [23] Wang K, Tian H Z, Hua S B, et al. A comprehensive emission inventory of multiple air pollutants from iron and steel industry in China: Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics [J] . Science of the Total Environment, 2016, 559: 7–14.

    [24] Gao C K, Gao W G, Song K H, et al. Spatial and temporal dynamics of air-pollutant emission inventory of steel industry in China: A bottom-up approach [J]. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2019, 143: 184–200.

    [25] Huang T, Tian C G, Zhang K, et al. Gridded atmospheric emission inventory of 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD in China [J] . Atmospheric Environment, 2015, 108: 41–48.

    [26] National Bureau of Statistics. China Statistical Yearbook, 2017 [M] . Beijing: China Statistic Press, 2017 (in Chinese).

    [27] China Non-Ferrous Metals Industry Association. The Yearbook of Nonferrous Metals Industry of China [M]. Beijing: China Non-Ferrous Metals Industry Association, 2017 (in Chinese).

    [28] Editorial Committee of China Steel Yearbook. China Steel Yearbook [M]. Beijing: China Steel Yearbook Press, 2017 (in Chinese).

    [29] Department of energy statistics, National Bureau of Statistics. China Energy Statistical Yearbook [M]. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2017 (in Chinese).

    [30] Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China.2017年全国大、中城市固体废物污染环境防治年报 [R] . Beijing: Ministry of environmental protection of the people’s Republic of China, 2017 (in Chinese).

    [31] Almanac of China Building Materials Industry Press. Almanac of China Building Materials Industry, 2017 [M]. Beijing: Almanac of China Building Materials Industry Press, 2017 (in Chinese).

    [32] Department of rural socio economic investigation, National Bureau of Statistics. China Rural Statistical Yearbook, 2017 [M]. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2017 (in Chinese).

    [33] Li Y Q. Research on Energy Consumption in China Rural Households [D] . Dalian: Dalian University of Technology, 2013 (in Chinese).

    [34] Doll C N H, Muller J P, Elvidge C D. Night-time imagery as a tool for global mapping of socioeconomic parameters and greenhouse gas emissions [J]. Ambio, 2000, 29(3): 157–162.

    [35] Chai Z W, Wang S L, Qiao J G. Township GDP estimation of the Pearl River delta based on the NPP-VIIRS night-time satellite data [J]. Tropical Geography, 2015, 35(3): 379–385 (in Chinese).

    [36] Han X D, Zhou Y, Wang S X, et al. GDP spatialization in China based on nighttime imagery [J]. Journal of GeoInformation Science, 2012, 14(1): 128–136 (in Chinese).

    [37] National Bureau of Statistics. China Statistical Yearbook, 2015 [M] . Beijing: China Statistic Press, 2005 (in Chinese).

    [38] Zhang H, He P J, Shao L M, et al. Fate of heavy metals during municipal solid waste incineration in Shanghai [J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2008, 156(1–3): 365–373.

    [39] Li Y M, Wang T, Wang P, et al. Reduction of atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during the 2008 Beijing olympic games [J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2011, 45(8): 3304–3309.

    [40] Bu Y G, Fan R G, Lu R Q, et al. Analysis on the current status of the domestic garbage treatment and disposal in China [J] . Environment and Sustainable Development, 2017, 42(5): 95–98 (in Chinese).

    [41] Yan J H, Chen T, Li X D, et al. Evaluation of PCDD/Fs emission from fluidized bed incinerators co-firing MSW with coal in China [J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2006, 135(1–3): 47–51.

    [42] Wang A L, Gao W S, Hong C M. Study on the ecological effect of crop residues burned or incorporated in field in north central irrigated area of China [J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2003, 11(1): 142–144 (in Chinese).

    [43] UNEP Chemicals. Standardized toolkit for identification and quantification of dioxin and furan releases [R]. Geneva, Switzerland: UNEP Chemicals, 2005.

    [44] Xu Y, Tian C G, Ma J M, et al. Assessing cancer risk in China fromγ-hexachlorocyclohexane emitted from Chinese and Indian sources [J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2013, 47(13): 7242–7249.

This Article


CN: 11-1895/X

Vol 41, No. 02, Pages 510-519

February 2020


Article Outline


  • 1 Materials and methods
  • 2 Results and discussion
  • 3 Conclusion
  • References