Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater and the Origin in Alluvial-proluvial Fan of Qinhe River
【Abstract】To study the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater and the factors controlling the alluvial-proluvial fan of the Qinhe River, 60 samples were collected including 9 surface water samples and 51 groundwater samples. The distribution characteristics of the hydrochemistry and major controlling factors of hydrochemical evolution processes of surface water and groundwater in the study area were analyzed by using mathematical statistics, the Schakerev classification, Piper diagrams, Schoeller diagrams, Gibbs plots, and ion ratios. The results show that ① the major anions and cations of surface water and groundwater in the study area are Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42−, and HCO3−, and the recharge sources of surface water and groundwater are closely related; ② the major hydrochemical types of the groundwater are HCO3-Ca, HCO3-Ca·Mg, and HCO3·SO4-Ca·Mg, while the major hydrochemical type of surface water is HCO3·SO4-Ca·Mg; and ③ the major ions of surface water and groundwater are affected by carbonate mineral weathering and dissolution, ion exchange, and evaporation. Sulfuric acid and carbonic acid were involved in carbonate mineral weathering and dissolution.
【Keywords】 Qinhe River; alluvial-proluvial fan; hydrochemical type; piper diagram; Gibbs plot; ion ratio; origin analysis;
 Duan L, Wang W K, Cao Y Q, et al. Hydrochemical characteristics and formation mechanics of groundwater in the middle of northern slope of Tianshan Mountains [J]. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, 2009, 21 (9): 29–34 (in Chinese).
 Wang X X, Wang W K, Wang Z F, et al. Hydrochemical characteristics and formation mechanism of river water and groundwater along the downstream Luanhe River, northeastern China [J]. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, 2014, 41 (1): 25–33, 73 (in Chinese).
 Qian H, Ma Z H, Li P Y. Hydrogeochemistry (2nd ed. ) [M]. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 2012 (in Chinese).
 Shen Z L, Wang Y X. Review and outlook of water-rock interaction studies [J]. Earth Science—Journal of China University of Geosciences, 2002, 27 (2): 127–133 (in Chinese).
 Guo G X, Hou Q L, Xu L, et al. Delamination and zoning characteristics of quaternary groundwater in Chaobai alluvialproluvial fan, Beijing, based on hydrochemical analysis [J]. Acta Geoscientica Sinica, 2014, 35 (2): 204–210 (in Chinese).
 Huan H, Wang J S, Zhai Y Z, et al. Chemical characteristics and evolution of groundwater in the Yongding River alluvial fan of Beijing Plain [J]. Acta Geoscientica Sinica, 2011, 32 (3): 357–366 (in Chinese).
 Ma Z W, Du J Z, Cui J, et al. Pollution evaluation on shallow groundwater for alluvial and diluvial fan of Hun River [J]. Water Resources & Hydropower of Northeast China, 2011, 29 (9): 18–21 (in Chinese).
 Cui J, Du J Z, Ma H W, et al. Distinguishing Significant Factors for Shallow Groundwater Quality in the Hunhe River Alluvial Fan Based on Factor Analysis [J]. China Rural Water and Hydropower, 2011, (7): 45–48, 51 (in Chinese).
 Zhang R Q, Liang X, Jin M G, et al. The trends in contemporary hydrogeology [J]. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, 2005, 32 (1): 51–56 (in Chinese).
 Tang X W, Wu J K, Xue L Y, et al. Major ion chemistry of surface water in the Xilin River Basin and the possible controls [J]. Environmental Science, 2014, 35 (1): 131–142 (in Chinese).
 Zhou J X, Ding Y J, Zeng G X, et al. Major ion chemistry of surface water in the upper reach of Shule River Basin and the possible controls [J]. Environmental Science, 2014, 35 (9): 3315–3324 (in Chinese).
 Zhang Y, Wu Y, Yang J, et al. Hydrochemical characteristic and reasoning analysis in Siyi Town, Langzhong City [J]. Environmental Science, 2015, 36 (9): 3230–3237 (in Chinese).
 Wang C Y, Yang Y H, Zhou F, et al. Spatio-temporal characteristics and source identification of water pollutants in river Qinhe Basin [J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2012, 32 (9): 2267–2278 (in Chinese).
 Qin Y, Zhang D, Zhao Z Q. Spatial and temporal variations of hydrochemical compositions of river water in Qinhe Basin [J]. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 2016, 35 (6): 1516–1524 (in Chinese).
 Zhang D, Qin Y, Zhao Z Q. Chemical weathering of carbonate rocks by sulfuric acid on small basin in North China [J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2015, 35 (11): 3568–3578 (in Chinese).
 Tang J R, Liu G R. 沁河冲洪积扇同位素测速试验研究 [J]. Site Investigation Science and Technology, 1991, (2): 6–9 (in Chinese).
 Zhang J H, Liang Y P, Wang W T, et al. A practical use of34Sin the investigation of karst groundwater resource in North China [J]. Carsologica Sinica, 2009, 28 (3): 235–241 (in Chinese).
 Zhang D, Yang W, Zhao J L. Tracing nitrate sources of the Yellow River and its tributaries with nitrogen isotope [J]. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment, 2012, 28 (6): 622–627 (in Chinese).
 Ma S Y, Li Y. The status of lead and zinc smelting industry SO2pollution in Jiyuan City and countermeasures [J]. Journal of Shangqiu Teachers College, 2011, 27 (12): 94–98 (in Chinese).
 Jiang T S, Qu C X, Wang M Y, et al. Hydrochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater and the origin in the Pinggu Plain, Beijing [J]. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, 2017, 31 (11): 122–127 (in Chinese).
 El Maghraby M M. Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater aquifer in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah City, Saudi Arabia [J]. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 2015, 8 (6): 4191–4206.
 Sarikhani R, Dehnavi A G, Ahmadnejad Z, et al. Hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment in Bushehr Province, SW Iran [J]. Environmental Earth Sciences, 2015, 74 (7): 6265–6281.
 Huang Q B, Qin X Q, Liu P Y, et al. Major ionic features and their controlling factors in the upper-middle reaches of Wujiang River [J]. Environmental Science, 2016, 37 (5): 1779–1787 (in Chinese).
 Sun P A, Yu S, Mo F Z, et al. Hydrochemical characteristics and influencing factors in different geological background:a case study in Darongjiang and Lingqu Basin, Guangxi, China [J]. Environmental Science, 2016, 37 (1): 123–131 (in Chinese).
 Wei H, Wu J K, Shen Y P, et al. Hydrochemical characteristics of snow meltwater and river water during snow-melting period in the headwaters of the Ertis River, Xinjiang [J]. Environmental Science, 2016, 37 (4): 1345–1352 (in Chinese).
 Zhao J T, Zhou J L, Liang C, et al. Hydrogeochemical process of evolution of groundwater in plain area of Yanqi, Xinjiang [J]. Environmental Chemistry, 2017, 36 (6): 1397–1406 (in Chinese).
 Abdisalam J, Wang X, Shi Y H. Variation analysis of the chemical characteristics of surface water in Turpan City [J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2015, 35 (8): 2481–2486 (in Chinese).
 He X L, Wu Y H, Zhou J, et al. Hydro-chemical characteristics and quality assessment of surface water in Gongga Mountain Region [J]. Environmental Science, 2016, 37 (10): 3798–3805 (in Chinese).
 Zhang Q H, Sun P A, He S Y, et al. Fate and origin of major ions in river water in the Lhasa River Basin, Tibet [J]. Environmental Science, 2018, 39 (3): 1065–1075 (in Chinese).
 Xing L N, Guo H M, Zhan Y H. Groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and processes along flow paths in the North China Plain [J]. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 2013, 70–71:250–264.
 Zhu B Q, Yang X P, Rioual P, et al. Hydrogeochemistry of three watersheds (the Erlqis, Zhungarer and Yili) in northern Xinjiang, NW China [J]. Applied Geochemistry, 2011, 26 (8): 1535–1548.
 Ma Y H, Su C L, Liu W J. et al. Identification of sulfate sources in the groundwater system of Zaozhuang:evidences from isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics [J]. Environmental Science, 2016, 37 (12): 4690–4699 (in Chinese).
 Lü J M, An Y L, Wu Q X, et al. Rock weathering characteristics and the atmospheric carbon sink in the chemical weathering processes of Qingshuijiang River Basin [J]. Environmental Science, 2016, 37 (12): 4671–4679 (in Chinese).
 Du W Y, He R X, He S Y, et al. Variation of hydrochemical characteristics and the ion source in the upstream of Guijiang River:a case study in Guilin section [J]. Carsologica Sinica, 2017, 36 (2): 207–214 (in Chinese).
 Zhang T, Cai W T, Li Y Z, et al. Major ionic features and their possible controls in the water of the Niyang River Basin [J]. Environmental Science, 2017, 38 (11): 4537–4545 (in Chinese).
 Karim A, Veizer J. Weathering processes in the Indus River Basin: implications from riverine carbon, sulfur, oxygen, and strontium isotopes [J]. Chemical Geology, 2000, 170 (1–4): 153–177.
 Fu S M, Zhou Y Z, Gao Q Z, et al. Environmental geochemistry of metallic sulfide mines-A review [J]. Earth and Environment, 2006, 34 (3): 23–29 (in Chinese).
 Liu C Q, Jiang Y K, Tao F X, et al. Chemical weathering of carbonate rocks by sulfuric acid and the carbon cycling in Southwest China [J]. Geochimica, 2008, 37 (4): 404–414 (in Chinese).
 Ma X P, Jing W X, Wang Q, et al. Heavy metal pollution in the surface sediment of Dan River and its ecological risk assessment [J]. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 2010, 29 (6): 1180–1186 (in Chinese).