Residue Concentration and Distribution Characteristics of Perfluorinated Compounds in Surface Water from Qiantang River in Hangzhou Section
(2.Jiande Environmental Monitoring Station, Hangzhou, China 311600)
【Abstract】This study studied the pollution characteristics of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Qiantang River in Hangzhou section (QR). Surface water samples, collected in July 2014 and January 2015 from 14 sites in QR were analyzed for 16 PFCs. All samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction with Oasis WAX cartridges and analyzed using the ultra performance liquid chromatography interfaced to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that 8 medium- and short-chain PFCs including C4 and C8 perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) and C4-C9 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected in the surface waters. The total concentrations of PFCs ranged from 0.98 to 609 ng·L−1, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated, with range of 0.59–538 ng·L−1, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected at lower levels, ranging from 0 to 2.48 ng·L−1. The spatial distribution of PFCs varied, and the pollutant concentrations at the sampling sites located in upstream of the river such as Lanjiangkou and Jiangjunyan were relatively high, ΣPFCs concentration showed a decreasing trend from the upstream to the downstream. According to the ratio of feature components, PFCs in surface water of QR originated largely from the input of direct sewage emissions. Taken together, the PFCs pollution was highly correlated with the upstream of Qiantang River valley's industry distribution, and most of the mass load in the investigated river was attributed to upstream running water with a minor influence from the wastewater discharges along the river basin. Overall, the results presented here indicated that greater attention should be given to the contamination of PFCs, especially for PFOA in water body of QR.
【Keywords】 PFCs; surface water; Qiantang River; pollution characteristics; UPLC-MS/MS;
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