Surface modification and electrochemical properties of hard carbon anode material for lithium ion capacitors

WANG He1 QIN Nan2,3 GUO Xin2,3 ZHENG Junsheng2,3 ZHAO Jigang1

(1.International Joint Research Center for Green Energy Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China 200237)
(2.Clean Energy Automotive Engineering Center, Tongji University, Shanghai, China 201804)
(3.School of Automotive Studies, Tongji University, Shanghai, China 201804)

【Abstract】Concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated nitric acid were used as oxidants to oxidize the surface of hard carbon by ultrasonic oxidation, and its electrochemical performance as a negative electrode material for lithium ion supercapacitors was studied. The influences of ultrasonic oxidation treatment on the morphology, structure and relative content of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of hard carbon before and after treatment was studied by means of galvanostatic charge and discharge, cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance. The results showed that ultrasonic oxidation treatment can introduce an appropriate amount of oxygen-containing functional groups on the hard carbon surface, add additional active sites, improve the electron mobility, and then improve the electrochemical performance of hard carbon materials. In the half-cell test, at a high current density of 2 A·g−1, the specific capacity of oxidized hard carbon was twice that of untreated hard carbon, and it had excellent rate performance. Lithium ion capacitors were fabricated with oxidized hard carbon anode and activated carbon cathode. The energy density and power densities were 37.6 W·h·kg−1 and 9415 W·kg−1, and the capacity retention rate was 99.1% after 4000 cycles at a current density of 1.0 A·g−1, showing good cyclic stability.

【Keywords】 lithium ion capacitors; anode materials; hard carbon; surface; oxidation; electrochemical;

【DOI】

【Funds】 National Natural Science Foundation of China (51777140) National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2015BAG06B00) Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities at Tongji University (22120180519)

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(Translated by SUN Z)

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This Article

ISSN:0438-1157

CN: 11-1946/TQ

Vol 71, No. 06, Pages 2735-2742

June 2020

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • Introduction
  • 1 Experimental materials and methods
  • 2 Experimental results and discussion
  • 3 Conclusions
  • References