Plating of Li ions in 3D structured lithium metal anodes

ZHANG Rui1 SHEN Xin1 WANG Jinfu1 ZHANG Qiang1

(1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China 100084)

【Abstract】Lithium metal has a very high theoretical specific capacity and a very low redox electrode potential, making it the most ideal anode material for a new generation of secondary batteries with high specific energy. However, the large-scale practical applications of lithium metal batteries have been hindered by several issues on lithium metal anodes, such as uncontrollable lithium electroplating morphology and unstable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Researchers have proposed plenty of strategies including three-dimensional (3D) structured lithium metal anodes to settle these challenges. The rational design of 3D structured lithium metal anodes requires a deep understanding of the mechanisms behind lithium metal batteries, which are extremely deficient at current initial stage. In this work, the mechanism of the specific surface area in 3D structured lithium metal anode on the electroplating process of lithium metal was quantitatively explored, and the two-stage mechanism of the specific surface area regulating lithium metal electroplating was revealed. At the early stage, higher specific surface area can provide more activated sites for electrochemical reactions, which can reduce the reaction resistance. While at the later stage, higher specific surface area may bring more narrow pores, which may hinder the lithium ion transport. In order to maximize the positive effect of 3D structured lithium metal anode in the early stage, the specific surface area and pore structure should be rationally designed.

【Keywords】 mathematical modeling; electrochemistry; nanomaterials; phase field; lithium metal batteries; lithium metal anodes;

【DOI】

【Funds】 National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFA0202500, 2016YFA0200102) General Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (21676160) Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21825501) Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1801257) Independent Research Fund of Tsinghua University

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(Translated by SUN Z)

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This Article

ISSN:0438-1157

CN: 11-1946/TQ

Vol 71, No. 06, Pages 2688-2695+2921

June 2020

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • Introduction
  • 1 Theoretical simulation method
  • 2 Results and discussion
  • 3 Conclusion
  • References