Acoustic emission characteristics of single nozzled bubble
【Abstract】Dynamic characteristics of single bubbles in gas-liquid two-phase flow were studied by acoustic emission technique in an experimental setup of single bubble generator. The parameters of acoustic emission signal in bubbles were extracted using self-developed data acquisition and processing program. The acoustic signals in time and frequency domains were then analyzed by statistical analysis, wavelet transform and fast Fourier transform. The results showed that the acoustic emission technique could detect acoustic signals of bubbles inside pipe with a high signal to noise ratio, in which the acoustic signal increased with the size of nozzle but decreased with the surface tension of liquid. By comparing the frequency spectra of bubbles from nozzle with different diameters, it was found that the acoustic signal frequency emitted by bubbles was between 150 kHz–200 kHz and the peak frequency increased with nozzle diameter. A correlation function was proposed between peak frequency of acoustic signals and bubble diameter. Meanwhile, a continuous bubble evolution diagram was obtained for bubble floating up and the generation mechanism of acoustic signals by bubbles was analyzed. The study demonstrates that acoustic emission technique is highly sensitive and very convenient for the measurement of bubble motions in gas-liquid two-phase pipe flow.
【Keywords】 gas-liquid flow; bubble; measurement; acoustic emission;
(Translated by CHENG QZ)
 YANG L X, NICOLAS D, KARINE L, et al. Visualization and characterization of gas-liquid mass transfer around a Taylor bubble right after the formation stage in microreactors [J]. Chemical Engineering Science, 2016, 143 (2): 364–368.
 MIN S K, JEONG W B, HYUNG S H. Development of noise pattern map for predicting refrigerant-induced noise in refrigerators [J]. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 2014, 28 (9): 3499–3510.
 FANG L D, LIANG Y J, LU Q H, et al. Flow noise characterization of gas-liquid two-phase flow based on acoustic emission [J]. Journal of the International Measurement Confederation, 2013, 46 (10): 3887–3897.
 LIANG J, HAN G, LIU F B, et al. Investigations on dynamics of interacting cavitation bubbles in strong acoustic fields [J]. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2017, 34:90–97.
 ABDULKADIR M, HERNANDEZ-PEREZ V, LOWNDES I S, et al. Experimental study of the hydrodynamic behavior of slug flow in a horizontal pipe [J]. Chemical Engineering Science, 2016, 156 (5): 147–161.
 AMARAL C E F, ALVES R F M J, SILVA D, et al. Image processing techniques for high-speed videometry in horizontal two-phase slug flows [J]. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 2013, 33 (3): 257–264.
 FERNANDO A, GRANGEIRO F. Characterization of the horizontal intermittent air-water flow using ultrasound technique aided by high-speed filming [J]. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2010, 19 (22): 11–16.
 FINFER D, PARKER T R, MAHUE V, et al. Non-intrusive multiple zone distributed acoustic sensor flow metering [J]. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2015, 28 (9): 86–93.
 LEIGHTON T G, PHELPS A D, RAMBLE D G, et al. Comparison of the abilities of eight acoustic techniques to detect and size a single bubble [J]. Ultrasonics, 1996, 34 (6): 661–667.
 ASME. Standard terminology for nondestructive examinations:E1316-06a [S]. United States: ASTM, 2006.
 ADDALI A, Al-LABABILI S, YEUNG H, et al. Acoustic emission and gas-phase measurements in two-phase flow [J]. Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, 2010, 224 (10): 281–290.
 LI C, SHANE W, STEPHEN M, et al. Acoustic emission of bubble flow and its size distribution spectrum [J]. Proceedings of Acoustics, 2012, 21 (3): 1–6.
 SINHA N N. Characterization of liquid using gas bubbles: US7010962B2 [P]. 2006-03-14.
 MANASSEH R, RIBOUX G, RISSO F. Sound generation on bubble coalescence following detachment [J]. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2008, 34 (3): 938–949.
 DIVOUX T, VIDAL V, DIVOUVX T, et al. Acoustic emission associated with the bursting of a gas bubble at the free surface of a non-Newtonian fluid [J]. Phys. Review, 2008, 5 (20): 77–81.
 HELEN C, GRANT B D. Contributions to the acoustic excitation of bubbles released from a nozzle [J]. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 2010, 128 (5): 2625–2634.
 SHUIB H, MBA D. Acoustic emission of a single bubble activities [J]. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, 2010, 30 (2): 145–153.
 FAN X Q, HE L L, HUANG Z L, et al. Measurement of flooding gas velocity in packed column by acoustic emission technique [J]. CIESC Journal, 2016, 67 (2): 476–484 (in Chinese).
 FANG L D, ZHANG Y, ZHANG W L, et al. Flow detection technology based on acoustic emission of gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical pipe [J]. CIESC Journal, 2014, 65 (4): 1243–1250 (in Chinese).
 LONGUET H. An analytic model of sound production by raindrops [J]. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1990, 214:395–410.
 STRASBERG M. Gas bubbles as source of sound in liquids [J]. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 1956, 28:20–26.
 MINNAERT M. On musical air-bubbles and the sounds of running water [J]. Philosophical Magazine, 1933, 16:235–248.
 GRANT B D, HELEN C. A mechanism stimulating sound production from air bubbles released from a nozzle [J]. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 2008, 123 (6): 126–131.
 LUTZ B, TOKIHIRO K, KATSUKI K, et al. Rising behaviour of single bubbles in narrow rectangular channels in Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids [J]. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 2014, 65 (5): 11–23.
 WEN W, ZHONG G H, SHUSHENG B. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline [J]. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2014, 85 (6): 1–7.
 WU C J, GEORGES L C. Development of an acoustic instrument for bubble size distribution measurement [J]. Journal of Hydrodynamics, 2010, 22 (5): 330–336.
 LING M Y. Acoustic Emission Detection and Signal Processing [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2010: 48–52 (in Chinese).
 SALAH M A, HUI K H, HE L M, et al. Automated valve fault detection based on acoustic emission parameters and support vector machine [J]. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 2017 (in press).
 ZHOU W. Application of Wavelet Analysis Based on MATLAB [M]. Xi’an: Xi’an University of Electronic Science and Technology Press, 2010: 145–186 (in Chinese).
 BALASUBRAHMANYAM A, ANIRUDDHA B P. Oscillating bubble concentration and its size distribution using acoustic emission spectra [J]. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2009, 16: 105–115.
 VAZQUEZ A, SANCHEZ R M, SALINAS-RODRIGUEZ E, et al. A look at three measurement techniques for bubble size determination [J]. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2005, 30 (1): 49–57.