Photon-Counting Laser Altimetry Based on Microchannel Plate
(2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China 100049)
【Abstract】Compared with the traditional laser altimetry technology, the photon-counting laser altimetry technology has the advantages of large data size, light weight, and high ranging precision, which is the development trend of laser altimetry technology. In this paper, we establish a mathematical model to study the characteristics of the photon-counting laser altimetry. The performance of the photon-counting laser altimeter is estimated by numerical calculation. The ground object model is established, and the simulation is carried out with Monte Carlo method. A filtering method for the altimetry data and an algorithm for optimizing the topography using the remote-sensing images are proposed. The results show that the root-mean-square error of the photon-counting laser altimeter is 6.1 cm under the condition of the noonday background with the most intense sun for the typical ground object model, and the error after optimization by the algorithm is 2.6 cm.
【Keywords】 measurement; laser altimetry; photon-counting detector; microchannel plate;
 Li R, Wang C, Su G Z, et al. Development and applications of spaceborne LiDAR [J]. Science & Technology Review, 2007, 25 (14): 58–63 (in Chinese).
 Nozette S, Rustan P, Pleasance L P, et al. The clementine mission to the moon: scientific overview [J]. Science, 1994, 266 (5192): 1835–1839.
 Nozette S, Lichtenberg C L, Spudis P, et al. The clementine bistatic radar experiment [J]. Science, 1996, 274 (5292): 1495–1498.
 Tang X M, Li G Y. Development and prospect of laser altimetry satellite [J]. Space International, 2017 (11): 13–18 (in Chinese).
 Yang F, He Y, Zhou T H, et al. Simulation of space-borne altimeter based on pseudorandom modulation and single-photon counting [J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2009, 29 (1): 21–26 (in Chinese).
 Schutz B E. Laser altimetry and lidar from ICESat/GLAS [C]. 2001 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Sydney, 2001: 1016–1019.
 Smith D E, Zuber M T, Jackson G B, et al. The lunar orbiter laser altimeter investigation on the lunar reconnaissance orbiter mission [J]. Space Science1228001–9Reviews, 2010, 150 (1/2/3/4): 209–241.
 Wang J Y, Shu R, Chen W B, et al. Lather altimeters of Chang’e-1 [J]. Scientia Sinica Physica, Mechanica & Astronomica, 2010, 40 (8): 1063–1070 (in Chinese).
 Ouyang Z Y. Science results of Chang’e-1 lunar orbiter and mission goals of Chang’e-2 [J]. Spacecraft Engineering, 2010, 19 (5): 1–6 (in Chinese).
 Song B, Li X, Zheng W, et al. The implementation of high precision space-borne laser ranging technology in ZY-3 (02) satellite [J]. Optoelectronic Technology, 2017, 37 (1): 61–65 (in Chinese).
 Santovito M R, Tommasi L, Sgarzi G, et al. A laser altimeter for BepiColombo mission: instrument design and performance model [J]. Planetary and Space Science, 2006, 54 (7): 645–660.
 Araki H, Tazawa S, Noda H, et al. Lunar global shape and polar topography derived from Kaguya-LALT laser altimetry [J]. Science, 2009, 323 (5916): 897–900.
 Kamalakar J A, Bhaskar K V S, Prasad A S L, et al. Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1 [J]. Journal of Earth System Science, 2005, 114 (6): 725–731.
 Ji Y F, Geng L, Feng G X, et al. Progress and prospect of laser altimeter technology [J]. Laser & Infrared, 2011, 41 (8): 830–833 (in Chinese).
 Abdalati W, Zwally H J, Bindschadler R, et al. The ICESat-2laser altimetry mission [J]. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2010, 98 (5): 735–751.
 Yu A W, Harding D J, Krainak M, et al. Development of an airborne lidar surface topography simulator [C]. 2011 Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, CLEO: Applications and Technology, Baltimore, 2011: 1–2.
 Cai H Z, Liu J Y, Fu W Y, et al. Measurement technology of time of flight based on gated microchannel plates [J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2018, 38 (2): 0204002 (in Chinese).
 Priedhorsky W C, Smith R C, Cheng H. Laser ranging and mapping with a photon-counting detector [C]. Proceedings of SPIE, 1995: 441–52.
 Baron M H, Priedhorsky W C. Crossed-delay line detector for ground-and space-based applications [C]. Proceedings of SPIE, 1993: 188–198.
 Aull B F, Marino R M. Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes [C]. Proceedings of SPIE, 2005, 6014: 60140D.
 Zhang G Q, Zhang Y T, Zhai X J, et al. Signal-to-noise ratio properties of multi-pixel photon counter [J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2013, 33 (3): 0304001 (in Chinese).
 Shao Y, Silverman R W, Farrell R, et al. Design studies of a high resolution PET detector using APD arrays [J]. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2000, 47 (3): 1051–1057.
 Kataoka J, Koizumi M, Tanaka S, et al. Development of large-area, reverse-type APD-arrays for high-resolution medical imaging [J]. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 2009, 604 (1/2): 323–326.
 Bai T Z, Jin W Q. Photoelectric imaging principle [M]. Beijing: Beijing Institute of Technology Press, 2013: 127–128 (in Chinese).
 Vallerga J V, Siegmund O H W. 2K × 2K resolution element photon counting MCP sensor with > 200 kHz event rate capability [J]. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 2000, 442 (1/2/3): 159–163.
 Degnan J. Impact of receiver deadtime on photon-counting SLR and altimetry during daylight operations [C]. 16th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, 2008: 339–346.
 Xu Y T. Research on data processing technology of single photon laser altimetry [D]. Xi’an: Xi’an University of Science and Technology, 2017: 5–6 (in Chinese).
 Chen C, Chen H Y. Time-band width products for Lorentz and super-Gaussian rectangular line-shape ultrashort pulse lasers [J]. Journal of Yangtze University (Natural Science Edition), 2013, 10 (1): 10–11 (in Chinese).
 He K M, Sun J, Tang X O. Single image haze removal using dark channel prior [C]. Miami: 2009 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2009: 1956–1963.
 Levin A, Lischinski D, Weiss Y. A closed-form solution to natural image matting [J]. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2008, 30 (2): 228–242.