Optimization of Atom Flux in Atom Lithography
【Abstract】Atom flux is one of the main factors influencing the quality of nano-gratings fabricated by atom lithography. Based on the theoretical model of eruption volume of atomic furnace tube, the atom flux levels for three typical kinds of furnace tubes are compared by the combination of theory and experiment. Moreover, with the best furnace tube configuration, the peak-to-valley height of the fabricated Cr nano-gratings increases up to 100 nm, which further optimizes the quality of nano-gratings.
【Keywords】 atomic and molecular physics; nanoscale metrology; transfer standards; atom lithography; nano-gratings; atom flux;
 Li T B. Nanometrology and transfer standard [J]. Shanghai Measurement and Testing, 2005, 32 (1): 8–13 (in Chinese).
 Yi L F, Xiong X M, Zhang W T, et al. Analysis of three-dimensional deposition characteristics of chromium atoms in the straight edge diffraction standing wave field [J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2017, 37 (6): 0614004 (in Chinese).
 McClelland J J, Scheinfein M R. Laser focusing of atoms: aparticle-optics approach [J]. Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 1991, 8 (9): 1974-1202001-41986.
 Ekstrom C R, Keith D W, Pritchard D E. Atom optics using microfabricated structures [J]. Applied Physics B, 1992, 54 (5): 369–374.
 McClelland J J, Scholten R E, Palm E C, et al. Laser-focused atomic deposition [J]. Science, 1993, 262 (5135): 877–880.
 Ma Y, Li T B, Wu W, et al. Laser-focused atomic deposition for nanoscale grating [J]. Chinese Physics Letters, 2011, 28 (7): 073202.
 McClelland J J, Hill S B, Pichler M, et al. Nanotechnology with atom optics [J]. Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 2004, 5 (5/6): 575–580.
 Deng X, Liu J, Zhu L, et al. Natural square ruler at nanoscale [J]. Applied Physics Express, 2018, 11 (7): 075201.
 Bjorkholm J E, Freeman R R, Ashkin A, et al. Observation of focusing of neutral atoms by the dipole forces of resonance-radiation pressure [J]. Physical Review Letters, 1978, 41 (20): 1361–1364.
 Timp G, Behringer R E, Tennant D M, et al. Using light as a lens for submicron, neutral-atom lithography [J]. Physical Review Letters, 1992, 69 (11): 1636–1639.
 McGowan R W, Giltner D M, Lee S A. Light force cooling, focusing, and nanometer-scale deposition of aluminum atoms [J]. Optics Letters, 1995, 20 (24): 2535–2537.
 Ohmukai R, Urabe S, Watanabe M. Atom lithography with ytterbium beam [J]. Applied Physics B, 2003, 77 (4): 415–419.
 te Sligte E, Smeets B, van der Stam K M R, et al. Atom lithography of Fe [J]. Applied Physics Letters, 2004, 85 (19): 4493–4495.
 McClelland J J, Celotta R J. Laser-focused atomic deposition-nanofabrication via atom optics [J]. Thin Solid Films, 2000, 367 (1/2): 25–27.
 Dalibard J, Cohen-Tannoudji C. Laser cooling below the Doppler limit by polarization gradients: simple theoretical models [J]. Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 1989, 6 (11): 2023–2045.
 Wen X, Zhang Y Y, Qian J. Lensing effect induced by a Bose-Einstein condensate passing a Gaussian laser field [J]. Laser & Optoelectronics Progress, 2017, 54 (11): 110201 (in Chinese).
 McClelland J J, Gupta R, Jabbour Z J, et al. Laser focusing of atoms for nanostructure fabrication [J]. Australian Journal of Physics, 1996, 49 (2): 555–565.
 Dushman S, Brown S C. Scientific foundations of vacuum technique [J]. American Journal of Physics, 1962, 30 (8): 612.
 Brandes E A. Smithells metals reference book [M]. 6th ed. London: Butterworths, 1983.
 Smith K F. Molecular beams [M]. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1955.
 Zhang B W, Li T B, Ma Y. One-dimensional Doppler laser collimation of chromium beam with a novel precollimating scheme [J]. Chinese Optics Letters, 2008, 6 (10): 782–784.
 McClelland J J, Anderson W R, Bradley C C, et al. Accuracy of nanoscale pitch standards fabricated by laser-focused atomic deposition [J]. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003, 108 (2): 99–113.
 Zhang W J, Ma Y, Li T B, et al. Structured mirror array for two-dimensional collimation of a chromium beam in atom lithography [J]. Chinese Physics B, 2013, 22 (2): 228–231.