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社会嵌入与BOP网络演化:一个纵向案例研究

邢小强1 葛沪飞2 仝允桓3

(1.对外经济贸易大学国际商学院)
(2.东南大学经济管理学院)
(3.清华大学经济管理学院)

【摘要】在金字塔底层(BOP)市场,企业进行商业运营时与多元化组织与个体构建具有特定关系与结构的合作网络能够更有效实现价值的创造与分享。本研究基于社会嵌入的两面性、动态性与层次性特征提出理论分析框架,以湖南舜华鸭业公司的发展历程为案例研究对象,探究BOP网络演化的过程特征与内在机制。研究表明,BOP网络的关系与结构特征决定了成员的社会嵌入状态,进而产生相应的社会资本与社会负债组合,影响成员间的合作行为与网络绩效。企业会通过主动调整网络关系与结构来推动网络演化,其中引入代表BOP生产者集体利益的中介组织形成分层治理是简化与优化网络的重要途径,企业可以给中介组织让渡部分网络权力来降低与BOP生产者的关系嵌入程度,提高运营效率。本文最终从对BOP生产者进行组织的主体及其关系强弱归纳出BOP网络演化过程中的四种模式,在此基础上探讨了BOP网络演化的一般路径。

【关键词】 金字塔底层市场;网络演化;社会嵌入;社会资本;社会负债;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 国家社会科学基金面上项目(14BGL178); 北京市哲学社会科学规划项目(13JGB037); 北京市高等学校青年英才计划项目(YETP0895)的资助;

Social embeddedness and the BOP network evolvement: a longitudinal case study

XING Xiaoqiang1 GE Hufei2 Tong Yunheng3

(1.Business School, University of International Business and Economics)
(2.School of Economics and Management, Southeast University)
(3.Tsinghua University School of Economics and Management)

【Abstract】In the Bottom of the Pyrimad (BOP) market, during the business operation of companies, the cooperative network, which has specific relations and structures with diversified organizations and individuals, is able to realize value creation and sharing in a more effective manner. The study bases on the features of social embeddednesssocial embeddedness: double, dynamic and layers, proposes a theoretical analysis framework, use the development process of Hunan Shunhua Duck Industrial Development Company as case study subject, investigate the process features and internal mechanism of the BOP network envolvement. The research has shown that the relations and structure features of the BOP networks decide the social embeddednesssocial embeddedness status of the members, and then further produce corresponding social capitals and liability combination, influencing the cooperative behaviors of the members and the network achievements. Corporates will also promote the networks evolvement through taking the initiative and adjusting the networks relations and structure. Among this, introducing an agent organization that represents the collective interests of the BOP producers to form a layered governance is a crucial means to simplify and optimize the networks. Companies can transfer partial network power to the agent organizations to reduce the relations embeddedment level of the BOP producers and enhance the operational efficiency. In the end, the article summarizes four modes in the BOP networks evolvement from the subject that organizes the BOP producers and their power relations, and, based on that, discusses a general approach of the BOP network evolvement.

【Keywords】 base of the pyramid market; network evolvement; social embeddedness; social capital; social liability;

【DOI】

【Funds】 the General Program of National Social Science Foundation (14BGL178); the Beijing Planning Program of Philosophy and Social Science (13JGB037); the Beijing Higher Education Young Elite Teacher Project (YETP0895);

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    Footnote

    [1]. ①This article was firstly designed to select multiple case studies methodology, including a long-term investigation on the relationship between Mengniu Dairy, Yili Group and the dairy farmers. However Eisenhardt (1991) demonstrates that whether the amount of cases is appropriate or not is primarily decided by how much information is known, how much information could be acquired through the added cases. After our comparing analysis on multiple cases, we discover that the Shunhua Duck Industrial Development Company case has strong strength in representing other cases. Its information could support our research problems, whilst other cases will take a lengthy proportion of the article, yet its marginal contribution to the theoretical construction is limited. Much of it is redundant information. Thus in order to focus on the core research issue and distinctly show the relations of theoretical concepts, we eventually choose this single case to study. [^Back]

    [2]. ② In the model IV, the company could also establish deep confident and mutual beneficial relations with each farmer through long-term trading and quite frequent interactions. But due to the large number of farmers and their highly scatteredness, this model will costs a large amount of time and energy, and could easily result in over embeddedment, which brings high social liability to the company. It is not of benefit to the future growth and expansion of the future business model. Thus this article only considers the integration models, in which the company incorporates farmers to the internal organization. [^Back]

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This Article

ISSN:1002-5502

CN: 11-1235/F

Vol , No. 10, Pages 160-173

October 2015

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Literature review
  • 3 The design of the study
  • 4 Case studies analysis and discussion
  • 5 Conclusion and outlook
  • Footnote

    References