社会嵌入与BOP网络演化:一个纵向案例研究

邢小强1 葛沪飞2 仝允桓3

(1.对外经济贸易大学国际商学院)
(2.东南大学经济管理学院)
(3.清华大学经济管理学院)

【摘要】在金字塔底层(BOP)市场,企业进行商业运营时与多元化组织与个体构建具有特定关系与结构的合作网络能够更有效实现价值的创造与分享。本研究基于社会嵌入的两面性、动态性与层次性特征提出理论分析框架,以湖南舜华鸭业公司的发展历程为案例研究对象,探究BOP网络演化的过程特征与内在机制。研究表明,BOP网络的关系与结构特征决定了成员的社会嵌入状态,进而产生相应的社会资本与社会负债组合,影响成员间的合作行为与网络绩效。企业会通过主动调整网络关系与结构来推动网络演化,其中引入代表BOP生产者集体利益的中介组织形成分层治理是简化与优化网络的重要途径,企业可以给中介组织让渡部分网络权力来降低与BOP生产者的关系嵌入程度,提高运营效率。本文最终从对BOP生产者进行组织的主体及其关系强弱归纳出BOP网络演化过程中的四种模式,在此基础上探讨了BOP网络演化的一般路径。

【关键词】 金字塔底层市场; 网络演化; 社会嵌入; 社会资本; 社会负债;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 国家社会科学基金面上项目(14BGL178) 北京市哲学社会科学规划项目(13JGB037) 北京市高等学校青年英才计划项目(YETP0895)的资助

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    脚注

    [1]. ①本文初始设计是选择多案例研究方法,包括对蒙牛和伊利公司与奶农关系的长期考察。但Eisenhard(t1991)指出,案例数量合适与否主要取决于多少信息是已知的,多少信息可以从增加的案例中获得。我们进行跨案例对比分析后发现,舜华鸭业案例具有很强的代表性,所包含的信息可以支撑所研究的问题,其他案例在分析中要占据很大篇幅,但对于理论建构的边际贡献却很小,大部分是重复冗余信息,因此为聚焦于核心研究问题和凸显理论构念之间的关系,最终选择单案例进行研究。 [^Back]

    [2]. ②在模式中,企业还可以通过长期交易与高频互动与每个农户建立起深度的信任与互惠关系,但由于农户数量大和分散性强,这种模式需要花费大量的时间与精力,而且容易造成过度嵌入,给公司造成很高的社会负债,不利于商业模式未来的增长与扩散,因此本文只考虑了公司把农户纳入组织边界内部的一体化模式。 [^Back]

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This Article

ISSN:1002-5502

CN: 11-1235/F

Vol , No. 10, Pages 160-173

October 2015

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Article Outline

摘要

  • 一、引言
  • 二、文献回顾
  • 三、研究设计
  • 四、案例分析与讨论
  • 五、结论与展望
  • 脚注

    参考文献