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基于《美墨加协定》分析数字贸易规则“美式模板”的深化及扩展

周念利1 陈寰琦1

(1.对外经济贸易大学中国WTO研究院)

【摘要】《美墨加协定》(简称USMCA)框架下的数字贸易谈判以《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定》(简称TPP)规则作为基础。除直接承袭TPP中的部分条款外,USMCA对TPP中的数字贸易规则进行了一系列升级。USMCA较TPP数字贸易规则所作“深化”主要体现于:将数字产品非歧视性待遇扩展适用于广播服务产品;剔除“跨境数据自由流动”条款中“考虑各方监管需求”的例外规定;明确指出缔约方在“个人信息保护”方面需遵循的具体协定及原则;在“数据存储非强制本地化”条款中剔除“监管例外”和“公共安全例外”规定;将“开放源代码禁令”扩充适用于基础设施软件并引入“密钥保护”条款;推进缔约方在信息技术、网络安全、中小企业等多领域开展合作。此外USMCA还引入了未被TPP覆盖的“扩展”规则:“交互式计算机服务提供者对第三方侵权行为的免责条款”和“政府数据公开条款”。结合美国在USMCA谈判中所作表态,本文预测在后USMCA时代的贸易谈判中,数字贸易规则“美式模板”主要会在“持续推进美国数字经济国内规制的国际化”及“敦促缔约对象开放特定数字服务部门”两层面继续演进与发展。

【关键词】 数字贸易;美式模板;USMCA;个人信息保护;源代码;密钥保护;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 国家社会科学基金2019年重点项目“数字贸易规则‘美式模板’的演化升级与扩展适用趋向及中国的应对”(项目编号:19AGJ012); 国家自然科学基金委2019年第1期应急管理项目“基于维护世界线上市场统一的贸易相关电子商务谈判研究”(项目编号:71941012); 对外经济贸易大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金“美式数字贸易规则的发展演进及中国的政策选择”(课题编号:ZD3-07); 对外经济贸易大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金“全球数字贸易治理体系发展趋向及其贸易影响研究”(项目编号:CXTD9-06);

Analysis on the deepening and expansion of the “American Template” of digital trade rules based on the USMCA

ZHOU Nianli1 CHEN Huanqi1

(1.China Institute for WTO Studies, University of International Business and Economics)

【Abstract】The digital trade negotiations under the framework of the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) are based on the rules of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP). In addition to directly inheriting some of the provisions in the TPP, USMCA has made a series of upgrades to the digital trade rules in the TPP. The improvement of USMCA compared with the TPP digital trade rules is mainly embodied in the following aspects: extending the non-discriminatory treatment of digital products to broadcast service products; removing the “consideration of the regulatory needs of all parties” in the “free flow of cross-border data” clause; clearly identifying the specific agreements and principles to be followed by parties in terms of “personal information protection”; excluding “regulatory exceptions” and “public safety exceptions” in the non-mandatory data storage localization provisions; and expanding “barring the disclosure of open source” terms to infrastructure software and introducing “encryption protection” provisions; as well as promoting cooperation among parties in various areas such as information technology, cybersecurity, and small- and medium-sized enterprises. In addition, USMCA introduces extension rules that are not covered by the TPP, including “exemption of interactive computer service provider’s liability from third-party infringement” and “government data disclosure” terms. In light of the U.S. position made in USMCA negotiations, this paper predicted that in the post USMCA era of trade negotiations, the digital trade rules of the “American template” will mainly continue to develop and evolve in two aspects: continuing to promote the internationalization of the domestic digital economy in the U.S. and urging parties to open up specific digital service sectors.

【Keywords】 digital trade; American Template; USMCA; personal information protection; source code; encryption protection;

【DOI】

【Funds】 The National Social Science Fund of China (19AGJ012); The National Natural Science Foundation of China (71941012); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of University of International Business and Economics (ZD3-07); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of University of International Business and Economics (CXTD9-06);

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    Footnote

    [1]. (1) It refers to the trade in goods and services based on the information and communication technology represented by the Internet. [^Back]

    References

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This Article

ISSN:1002-4670

CN: 11-1692/F

Vol , No. 09, Pages 1-11

September 2019

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 USMCA’s deepening of digital trade rules under the TPP framework
  • 3 USMCA’s expansion of digital trade rules under the TPP framework
  • 4 Development trend of “American asking price” of digital trade based on USMCA negotiations
  • 5 Conclusion and China’s measures
  • Footnote

    References