New perspective on improving OFDI’s reverse innovation spillover effect: empirical test based on environmental regulation
(2.Northwest Institute of Historical Environment and Socio-Economic Development, Shaanxi Normal University)
【Abstract】From the perspective of environmental regulation, this paper studies OFDI’s reverse innovation overflow effect using the provincial panel data from 2004 to 2015 and the technique of threshold regression. What the study shows are as follows. (1) OFDI significantly promotes the domestic innovative efficiency, while there exists an obvious triple–threshold effect as far as the environmental regulation is concerned. (2) When the environmental regulation with a lower intensity positively impacts the OFDI’s reverse innovative spillover, it is relatively limited. Only when the environmental regulation intensity exceeds a certain threshold level, can the effect be maximized. However, the environmental regulation with a higher intensity does not always ensure positive impact. A harsher environmental regulation may weaken the OFDI’s reverse innovative spillover. (3) Although the current intensity of environmental regulation fails to drive the OFDI’s reverse innovation spillover in the most effective way, it is not far away from the optimal intensity range of environmental regulation. It is practicable to further release OFDI’s reverse innovation spillover through increasing the environmental regulation intensity in the short term, but in the long term, we still cannot ignore the “intensity” constraint of environmental regulation. (4) Under the constraint of environmental regulation, OFDI’s reverse innovation spillover effect shows a significant spatial heterogeneity. Positively inverted U–shaped, U–shaped and inverted U–shaped curves with nonlinear features have been observed in the eastern, central and western regions respectively. In the regions along the Belt and Road, it is featured by nonlinear positively inverted U–shaped, and nonlinear U–shaped curve exists outside the regions along the Belt and Road. All these findings provide a strong basis for implementing diverse and dynamic environmental regulation policies in different regions and thus promoting OFDI reverse innovation overflow more effectively.
【Keywords】 outward foreign direct investment (OFDI); environmental regulation; regional innovation efficiency; threshold effect;
(Translated by Wei Yang)
. ① As to the AR(1) model for panel data,denotes the vector of the exogenous variable in the model, which includes the time trends and fixed effects of each cross section. Parameter ρi denotes the autoregressive coefficient. The random error term uit satisfies the independent and identically distributed assumption. If |ρi|<1, it corresponds to the yi stationary series. According to different restrictions of the parameter ρi in the model, the unit root test methods of the panel data can be divided into two categories of the panel unit root test in the same situation and in different situations. [^Back]
. ② Panel cointegration test results are not reported here due to space limitations. [^Back]
. ① Regional grouping based on the Belt and Road aims to further reveal the heterogeneity and dynamic law of OFDI’s reverse innovation spillovers, so as to provide references for China to better implement the Belt and Road initiative and formulate corresponding regional innovation plans. [^Back]
. ① This paper believes that OFDI has a self-selection effect, which will be more significant under the constraints of environmental regulation. Since OFDI’s reverse spillovers in the eastern region has higher requirement for environmental regulation, it prefers to study and absorb green and clean technologies in developed countries, and to better adapt to the severe environmental regulations in the region by green-seeking reverse spillovers of OFDI, thereby enhancing regional innovation capability. [^Back]
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