Can high-speed rail construction reshape the layout of China’s economic space: from the perspective of regional heterogeneity of employment, wage and economic growth
(2.College of Business, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng , China 224051)
【Abstract】Based on the new economic geography theory, the article embeds high-speed rail construction factors into the research framework of space economic organization, and uses the PSM-DID method to carry out an empirical test. The results show that, at the national level, the indirect negative effect of high-speed rail construction on wage and economic growth generated by employment effects is less than the direct positive effect, and the total effect of high-speed rail construction on the wages and economic growth is significantly positive, with the elasticity coefficients being 0.2067, 0.1907 and 0.1491. In different regions and cities of different scale, the construction of high-speed rail significantly enhance employment in large cities with high speed rail in the eastern and central regions, especially the large high-speed rail city’s construction industry and high value-added manufacturing industries in the eastern regions and the small high-speed rail city’s employment of manufacturing industries and consumer services in the central area. Productivity growth effects of high-speed railway construction in the eastern large-scale high-speed rail cities exceed the effect of convenience of inhabitants, and it shows that the indirect effects of high-speed rail construction on the region’s wage and economic growth generated by jobs are positive, while the corresponding indirect effect is negative in medium- and small-sized high speed cities in central and western China. Overall, the construction of high-speed rail mainly expands the wage gap between the large high-speed rail cities and cities without high-speed rail in eastern China, and expands the eastern medium-sized cities’ economic growth gap between the high-speed rail and no high-speed rail cities. The result confirms the correctness of the theory of reasoning, that is, high-speed rail construction directly or indirectly affect employment, wage and economic growth of an area, reshape the economic space, which provides the basis for the region by means of high-speed rail to further promote regional employment and economic growth, and to develop relevant policies according to local conditions.
【Keywords】 high-speed rail construction; employment; wage; economic growth; PSM-DID;
. ① Although, on the surface, HSR only relates to passenger transport, and does not have direct relationship with the transport of goods, but through the release of traffic resources for the transport, it exerts significant indirect influence, so trading cost should also be considered here to study the influence after the HSR construction is done. [^Back]
. ① Effective supply of labor is also part of product supply. Labor as commodity should have “high quality” on the one hand and “low cost” on the other. High-speed railway construction can expand the scope of labor supply and improve the matching between high-quality labor supply and market demand and, on the other hand, can reduce the supply of labor costs, especially the cost of time. Therefore, the HSR construction is conducive to the promotion of effective regional labor supply. [^Back]
. ① In most of the prefecture-level HSR cities (especially the third-tier cities), the high-speed railway stations are located relatively far away from downtowns. The local governments hope to use the railway development opportunity to build metro, forming a new growth pole of driving regional economic development. Therefore, selecting data from the whole city rather than central districts can evaluate the HSR economic effects more accurately. [^Back]
. ② Due to the limitation of space, the descriptive statistics of each index’s data are not listed here, which are available upon request. [^Back]
. ① Due to the limitation of space, the PSM-DID results of industries are not listed here, which are available upon request. [^Back]
. ① Due to the limitation of space, the DID estimated results based on original data are not provided, which are available upon request. [^Back]
. ① The traffic network such as HSR connecting a group of cities is called corridors of cities. [^Back]
 Perl, A. D., and A. R. Goetz. Corridors, Hybrids and Networks: Three Global Development Strategies for High Speed Rail. Journal of Transport Geography, 2015, (42): 134–144.
 Spiekermann, K., and M. Wegener. The Shrinking Continent: New Time-Space Maps of Europe. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 1994, 21 (6): 653–673.
 Timberlake, M. The Polycentric Metropolis: Learning from Mega-City Regions in Europe. Journal of the American Planning Association, 2008, 16 (2006): 384–385.
 Clark, C. Transport-Maker and Breaker of Cities. Town Planning Review, 1958, 28 (4): 237–250.
 Yin, M., L. Bertolini, and J. Duan. The Effects of the High-Speed Railway on Urban Development: International Experience and Potential Implications for China. Progress in Planning, 2015, (98): 1–52.
 Zhang, X., and Q. Nie. High-Speed Rail Construction and the Regional Economic Integration in China. Modern City Study, 2010, (6): 7–10.
 Chen, C. L. Reshaping Chinese Space-Economy through High-Speed Trains: Opportunities and Challenges. Journal of Transport Geography, 2012, 22 (2): 312–316.
 Cheng, Y. S., B. P. Loo, and R. Vickerman. High-Speed Rail Networks, Economic Integration and Regional Specialization in China and Europe. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2015, 2 (1): 171–176.
 Ahlfeldt, G. M., and A. Feddersen. From Periphery to Core: Measuring Agglomeration Effects Using High Speed Rail. Serc Discussion Papers, 2015.
 Wang, Y. & Ni, P. China Industrial Economics (中国工业经济), (2): 1–16 (2016).
 Chen, G., and J. Silva. Regional Impacts of High-Speed Rail: A Review of Methods and Models. Transportation Letters the International Journal of Transportation Research, 2013, 5 (3): 131–143.
 Fujita, M., P. R. Krugman, and A. Venables. The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions, and International Trade. Cambrideg: MIT Press, 2001.
 Baum-Snow, N. Did Highways Cause Suburbanization. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2007, 122 (2): 775–805.
 Baum-Snow, N., L. Brandt, and J. V. Henderson. Roads, Railroads and Decentralization of Chinese Cities. Working Paper, 2012.
 Wang, Y., G. Wang, and H. Ding. The Ex-Ante Evaluation of Impacts of Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway on Wan Bei Area (in Chinese). Modern Econ. Inform, 2008, (10): 128–130.
 Faberd, B. Trade Integration, Market Size, and Industrialization: Evidence from China’s National Trunk Highway System. Cep Discussion Papers, 2013.
 Dalenberg, D. R., and M. D. Partridge. Public Infrastructure and Wages: Public Capital’s Role as a Productive Input and Household Amenity. Land Economics, 1997, 73 (2): 268–284.
 Ortega, E., E. López, and A. Monzón. Territorial Cohesion Impacts of High-Speed Rail at Different Planning Levels. Journal of Transport Geography, 2012, 24 (4): 130–141.
 Dai, N., and M. Hatoko. Reevaluation of Japanese High-Speed Rail Construction: Recent Situation of the North Corridor Shinkansen and its Way to Completion. Transport Policy, 2007, 14 (2): 150–164.
 Redding, S. J., and M. A. Turner. Transportation Costs and the Spatial Organization of Economic Activity. Handbook of Regional&Urban Economics, 2015, 5 (8): 1339–1398.
 Kim, K. S. High-Speed Rail Developments and Spatial Restructuring: A Case Study of the Capital Region in South Korea. Cities, 2000, 17 (4): 251–262.
 Redding, S. J., and D. M. Sturm. The Costs of Remoteness: Evidence from German Division and Reunification. American Economic Review, 2008, 98 (5): 1766–1797.
 Redding, S. J. Goods Trade, Factor Mobility and Welfare. NBER Working Paper, 2012.
 Redding, S. J., D. M. Sturm, and N. Wolf. History and Industry Location: Evidence from German Airports. Review of Economics and Statistics, 2011, 93 (3): 814–831.
 Romp, W., and J. Oosterhaven. Indirect Economic Effects of New Infrastructure: A Comparison of Dutch High-Speed Rail Variants. Appeared in Tijdschrift Economische en Sociale Geografie, 2003, 94 (4): 439–452.
 Rouwendal, J., and E. Meijer. Preferences for Housing, Jobs, and Commuting: A Mixed Logit Analysis. Journal of Regional Science, 2001, (41): 475–505.
 Heckman, J. The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables. Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, 1976, (5): 475–492.
 Rosenbaum, P. R., and D. B. Rubin. The Central Role of the Propensity Score in Observational Studies for Causal Effects. Biometrika, 1983, 70 (1): 41–55.
 Shaw, S.L., Z. Fang, and S. Lu. Impacts of High Speed Rail on Railroad Network Accessibility in China. Journal of Transport Geography, 2014, (40): 112–122.
 Willigers, J., and B. V. Wee. High-Speed Rail and Office Location Choices. Journal of Transport Geography, 2011, 19 (4): 745–754.
 Oosterhaven, J., and J. P. Elhorst. Indirect Economic Benefits of Transport Infrastructure Investments. Across the Border. Building Upon a Quarter Century of Transport Research in the Benelux, De Boeck, Antwerpen, 2003, (8): 143–162.
 Puga, D. Agglomeration and Cross-Border Infrastructure. EIB Papers, 2008, 13 (2): 102–124.
 Garmendia, M., J. M. Urena, and C. Ribalaygua. Urban Residential Development in Isolated Small Cities that are Partially Integrated in Metropolitan Areas by High Speed Train. European Urban and Regional Studies, 2008, 15 (3): 249–264.
 Hung, M., and Y. Wang. Mandatory CSR Disclosure and Shareholder Value: Evidence from China. Working Paper. University of Southern California and The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 2014.